Patho 3

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Author:
cgordon05
ID:
16724
Filename:
Patho 3
Updated:
2010-04-28 22:26:53
Tags:
Renal Urine Labs
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Description:
Renal - Urine Labs
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  1. pH
    • Normal = 4.5 - 8.0
    • Increased = Alkalosis
    • Decreased = Acidosis, Intrarenal ARF
    • Should be on acidotic side to discourage bacterial overgrowth
  2. Specific Gravity
    • Normal = 1.003 - 1.030
    • Increased = volume deficit, glycosuria, proteinuria, prerenal ARF (>1.020)
    • Decreased = volume overload
    • Measure of the concentration of urine
    • (Closer to 1 = more dilute)
  3. Osmolality
    • Normal = 300 - 1200 mOsm/kg
    • Increased = volume deficit, prerenal ARF (urine osmol > serum osmol)
    • Decreased = volume excess, intrarenal ARF (urine osmol < serum osmol)
  4. Protein
    • Normal = 30 - 150 mg/day
    • Increased = trauma, infection, intrarenal ARF; transient with exercise; glomerulonephritis
    • *Does not belong in urine. If seen, think problem with glomerulus
  5. Sodium
    • Normal = 27 - 287 mEq/day
    • Increased = High sodium diet; intrarenal ARF
    • Decreased = prerenal ARF
    • Help differentiate between injury and failure
  6. Creatinine
    • Normal = 1 - 2 g/day
    • Decreased = intrarenal ARF, CRF
    • Less creatinine in urine is problem in tubular system
  7. Urea
    • Normal = 6 - 17 g/day
    • Decreased = intrarenal ARF, CRF
  8. Myoglobin
    • Normal = absent
    • Increased = crush injury, rhabdomyolysis
    • From muscle cells; nephrotoxic and giant clogging tubules; seen with trauma
  9. RBCs
    • Normal = 0 - 5
    • Increased = trauma, intrarenal ARF, strenuous exercise, renal artery thrombus
  10. WBCs
    • Normal = 0 - 5
    • Increased = infection
    • Look for leukocyte esterase - more sensitive than WBCs
  11. Bacteria
    • Normal = none - few
    • Increased = infection
  12. Casts
    • Normal = none - few
    • RBC = glomerular disease
    • WBC = pyelonephritis, glomerular disease, nephrotic syndrome
    • Epithelial = glomerular disease
    • Broad waxy casts = longstanding kidney dysfunction (very negative)
    • Sediment tells you site of pathology

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