Disease States

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?

  1. Diabetes (disease)
    Chronic disease in where there is high levels of sugar in the blood. 

    Causes:  Not enough insulin; resistance to insulin, or both

    Symptoms:  blurry vision, excess thirst, fatigue, frequent urination, hunger, weight loss

    • Tests: 
    • -urine analysis (may suspect if blood sugar level >200mg/dL)
    • -fasting blood glucose level
    • -hemoglobin A1c
    • -oral glucose tolerance test
  2. Diabetes (RX)
    • ACE-I:  first line of therapy due to renal protective & cardiovascular protective qualities
    •       **Do not use for bilateral renal artery stenosis!**

    Beta blockers, ARBs - okay as first line

    Beta-blockers:  may mask signs of hypoglycemia (B1 preferred)

    • Microproteinuria = ACE-I/ARB
    • Gross proteinuria = ACE-I/ARB
    •        Don't use both together!

    Goal BP = 130/80
  3. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)
    Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons and leaves them unable to remove of waste.

    • CrCL < 60 mL/min
    • SrCr > 1.5    
    • AND/OR gross proteinuria

    Want goal BP = 130/80
  4. Kidney Disease (RX)
    • ACE-I/ARB
    •        *do not use if:   SrCr >/= 2.5 (males) or 2.0 (females)
    •          or    K>5.0

    Loop diuretics may be needed later in the disease (CrCL < 30 generally)
  5. Metabolic Syndrome (disease & RX)
    Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk for coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes

    • If "prediabetic" or at high risk for T2DM
    • -ACE-I/ARB may decrease incidence
    • -HCTZ or Beta-blocker may increase incidence

    ACE-I has better data for preventing progression to diabetes
  6. Heart Failure (disease & RX)
    Heart failure is when the heart can no longer pump enough blood to the rest of the body

    • RX USE:
    • -ACE-I/ARB (if ace is not tolerated)
    • & Beta-1 blocker  (or alpha/beta blocker-use B1)

    • Aldosterone antagonists if stage III or IV or if EF<40%
    • -or- hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate (data for AA)

    • Can add loop diuretic if fluid overload occurs
    •        -peripheral edema
    •        -positional shortness of breath

    If diuretic resistance - can add thiazide to combat

    Do NOT use:  nonDHP, clonidine, alpha-blockers
  7. Post-Myocardial Infarction (disease)
    MI occurs when blood flow to part of your heart is blocked for long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies

    • Causes:
    • -blood clot
    • -atherosclerosis
  8. Post-Myocardial Infarction/HTN (RX)
    • Start:
    • Beta1-blocker & ACE-I (ARB if not tolerated)

    *patient must be hemodynamically stable before adding B-blocker

    Aldosterone antagonists, thiazides may be added.

    Non-DHP may be used if B-blocker is contraindicated unless pregnacy

Card Set Information

Disease States
2012-08-24 17:56:40

Understanding dz states and related concerns with HTN
Show Answers:

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview