cardiovascular pathology terms

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cardiovascular pathology terms
2012-08-24 16:36:21
cardiovascular system pathology terms

chapter 6
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  1. group of disorders generally defined as a reduction in the mass of circulating red blood cells
  2. weakening and bulging of part of a vessel wall
  3. heart pain or other discomfort felt in the chest, shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck, caused by insufficient blood and oxygen to the heart:

    usually a symptom of heart disease
  4. loss of heart rhythm (rhythm irregularity)
  5. thickening, loss of elasticity, and loss of contractility of arterial walls,

    commonly called hardening of the arteries
  6. the most commonform of arteriosclerosis, marked by deposits of cholesterol, lipids, and calcium on the walls of arteries, which may restrict blood flow
  7. common irregular heart rhythm marked by uncontrolled atrial quivering and a rapid ventricular response
    atrial fibrillation AF A-fib
  8. soft blowing sound caused by turbulent blood flow in a vessel
  9. serious condition in which the heart becomes compressed from an excessive collection of fluid or blood between the pericardial membrane and the heart
    cardiac tamponade
  10. group of conditions in which theh heart muscle has deeriorated and functions less effectively
  11. inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of the body, resulting in lung congestion and dyspnea
  12. condition of right ventricular enlargement or dilation from increased right ventricular pressure.

    aka pulmonary heart disease or rightsided heart failure
    cor pulmonale
  13. narrowing of the lumen, or inner open space of a vessel, of heart arteries due to arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis
    coronary artery disease CAD
  14. development of a blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the legs

    aka thrombophlebitis
  15. serious condition that arises as a complication of another disorder, in which widespread, unrestricted microvascular blood clotting occurs

    primary symptom is hemorrhage
    • disseminated intravascular coagulation
    • DIC
  16. undissolved matter floating in blood or lymph fluid that may cuse an occlusion and infarction
  17. infection of the inner lining of the heart that may cause vegetations to form within one or more heart chambers or valves
  18. quivering of heart muscle fibers instead of an effective heartbeat
  19. blood pressure that is consistently higher than 140 systolic, 90 diastolic, or both
    • hypertension
    • HTN
  20. temporary reduction in blood supply to a localized area of tissue
  21. rare, life-threatening type of hypertension evidenced by optic-nerve (eye) edema and extremely high systolic and diastolic blood pressure
    malignant hypertension
  22. condition in which the mitral valve does not close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium

    aka mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence
    mitral regurgitation
  23. condition in which the mitral valve fails to open properly, thereby impeding normal blood flow and increasing pressure within the left atrium and lungs
    mitral stenosis
  24. blowing or swishing sound in the heart, due to turbulent blood flow or backflow through a leaky valve
  25. death of heart-muscle cells due to occlusion of a vessel: commonly called heart attack
    • myocardial infarction
    • MI
  26. condition in which the middle layer of the heart wall becomes inflamed
  27. acute or chronic condition in which the fibrous membrane surrounding the heart becomes inflamed
  28. condition of partial or complete obstruction of the arteries of the arms or legs; similar to peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which includes both arteries and veins
    • peripheral artery disease
    • PAD
  29. chronic disorder marked by increased number and mass of all bone marrow cells, especially RBCs, with increased blood viscosity and a tendency to develop blood clots
    polycythemia vera
  30. disorder that affects blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose, marked by vessel constriction and reduced blood flow in response to triggers such as cold temperature
    raynaud disease
  31. complication of rheumatic fever in which inflammation and damage occur to parts of the heart, usually the valves
    rheumatic heart disease
  32. syndrome of inadequate perfusion (circulation of blood, nutrients, and oxygen through tissues and organs) as a result of hypotension or low blood pressure
  33. type of vascular disease associated with tobacco use, marked by inflammation and clot formation within small vessels of the hands and feet, which may lead to gangrene and surgical amputation,
    sometimes called buerger disease
    • thromboangiitis obliterans
    • TAO
  34. bulging, distended veins due to incompetent valves, most commonly in the legs
    vericose legs