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- Rules formulated by Jacob Grimm
- details the regular changes in the IE stops that occurred in Germainic languages
- rule formulated by Karl Verner
- explains apparent exceptions to Grimm's Law
- p-b L: caput (head) Gothic: haubip
- t-d Greek: klutos (famous) E: hlud (loud)
- k-g Greek: dekas (group of ten) Gothic: tigus
- s-r Sanskrit: snusa (daughter-in-law) OE: snoru
- a change in a vowel, originally caused by a change in stress or accent
- ex. ring, rang, rung
stress can be put anywhere in the word and it'll have the same meaning
stress must be in a specific in a word or it will change the meaning
What is the path of descent from English to Indo-European?
- 5,000 BC- 3,000 BC: Eastern Europe, Western Asia
- 3,000 BC: migrations start in various directions
Approximately where and when were the language ancestors of English spoken?
- 0 AD, migration of dialect variation began in Southern Scandinavia, Northern Germany
- 450 AD, tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jukes, Friscans
How is the stress pattern of Commmon Germainic different from Common Indo-European
- IE had free stress. There was no fixed, specific pattern
- Germainic had fixed stress. In particular, the 1st syllable of the root.
Sound changes made up in Grimm's Law
- p→f L: pedis, pater E: foot, father
- t→þ [θ] L: tres, tonare E: three, thunder
- k→h [x] L: canis, cornu E: hound, horn
- b→p : L: turba (crowd) E: thorp (village)
- d→t L: dentis, duo E: tooth, two
- g→c L: granum, ager E: corn, acreb
- h→b L: frater, fran(n)go E: brother, breakd
- h→d L: foris, fin(n)go E: door, dough
- gh→g L: hortus, hostis E: garden, guest
- syllable that ends in one or more consonants
- ex: salt, stop, pass, sink
- syllable that ends in a vowel sound
- ex: sigh, go, pay, me, paw
- relations are expressed primarily by means of inflections
- uses more morphemes
- expresses grammatcal relationships by means of separate words rather than inflections
- each word has fewer morphemes
- lg. changed more to this during ME
- process of establishing hypothetical earlier forms by comparing cognate forms in related descendent languages or dialects
- ex. the reconstruction of the IE form of which PDE "three", French "trois," German "drei", and Russian "tri" are descendants
- form of an adjective or adverb that indicates that something possesses a quality to the maximum degree.
- ex: the most exciting, the slowest
division of words into masculine, feminine, neutral that are arbitrary (as in French)
division of words into masculine, feminine, neutral that correspond to the actual gender referred
- forming words by cutting off the begining or the end of another word.
- Ex: refrigerator- fridge
What events happened in 1066 that effects the history of the English language?
- Norman invasion of England. Last and most thouroughgoing invasion by foreigners.
- Unified England for the first time in history
how did the distribution of short and long vowels changed to become more regular based on whether the syllable was open (long V) or closed (short V)
- In short vowels, all short vowels were reduced to "e" (upside down e) in unstressed syllables. short vowel /I/ tended to remain the same
- lead to the ultimate loss of most inflections
- in long vowels, had a loss of /y/ and /ae/ and its addition of /backward 3/ and /upside down c/
- loanwords also contributed to long vowels
- vowels became short before GVS, didn't participate
- after gvs, vowel length no longer phonemic
break a word into syllables so that you can recognize whether each syllable is open or closed
- frogge 'frog' closed syllable, short vowel
- stelen 'to steal' open syllable, long vowel
- tale 'tale' open syllable, long vowel
- asken 'to ask' closed syllable short vowel
- hil 'hill' closed syllable, short vowel
explain how we know that word-final schwa deletion must have happened later than the vowel-length changes
Where does the y come from in quaint store names like Ye Olde Coffee Shoppe?
Why came from teh symbol thorn which represents the sound "th". Overtime, the writing changed to the symbol "y"
When and how did English become a more analytic language?
- during ME
- through the loss of inflectional endings and
- the increased use of prepositions,
- compound verb phrases,
- more/most for adjective comparatives,
- and more fixed word order
Which pronouns were added to the language during ME (i.e., which pronouns didn’t develop from OE via sound changes), where they came from (if it’s known), and why the language added them (i.e., what would have happened to the pronoun system if all pronouns had just followed regular sound changes).
- OE had 1st, 2nd person- singular, dual, plural.
- ME had singular, plural (no dual)
- ME sg: "thou" pl: "you" -came from French
- new form, 3rd sg: feminine "she" -unknown olrigin
- 3rd person pl: "they" -from Old Norse
difference between ME and PDE in distinctions shown in second person pronouns, and know how the use of you for second person singular started
- in PDE, "you" for both sg and pl.
- in ME, sg "thou" pl "you"
- Came from French
the degree of acceptability of multiple negation in ME
multiple negation is tolerated and allowed
ITS A TOTALLY RANDOM CARD!
how do Norse, French, and Latin compare in the number of words each contributed to English during the ME period
- Mostly from French
- Second most from O.N.
- Latin a little less
how did social factors influence which kinds of words were borrowed and what stylistic connotations those words came to have?
- More contact usually through different trade interactions or other jobs.
- Connotations usually related to foods and goods from other countries.
2 ways that native words could react semantically to new borrowings with similar meanings
- shifts in connotation
two ways that loanwords could be altered after borrowing
clipping and backformation