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Three fundamental skills of attitude instrument flying
instrument cross-check, instrument interpretation, and aircraft control
What is an instrument cross-check?
A instrument scan/cross-check is a logical way to check pertinent instruments as you need information
Instrument scanning errors (3)
- Fixation - stare at single instrument
- Omission - excluding one or more instruments
- Emphasis - on a single instrument instead of a combination
Control and performance concept
Once the control instruments are set, the airplane will perform as expected and can be backed up by using the performance instruments.
Control Instruments consist of?
- Power indicators - Manifold pressure and tachometer
- The Attitude Indicator
Performance instruments consist of?
- Turn coordinator
- Heading indicators
Divides the panel into pitch, bank, and power instruments. Instruments which provide most essential information during a flight condition are primary, and those that help maintain are the supporting instruments.
What is the only instrument that provides instant and direct aircraft attitude information?
Pitch Instruments (4)
Power Instruments (3)
- Airspeed Indicator
- Manifold Pressure
Bank Instruments (3)
- Attitude Indicator
- Turn Coordinator
- Heading Indicator
Straight and Level Flight PRIMARY instruments
- Altimeter (Pitch)
- Heading Indicator (Bank)
- Airspeed Indicator (Power)
Primary instrument for bank once ESTABLISHED in a turn
Supporting instrument for bank once ESTABLISHED in a turn
- Turn coordinator
- Attitude indicator
Primary instrument for bank during straight flight
Supporting instruments for bank during straight flight
- Heading indicator
- Attitude indicator and turn coordinator
Primary power instrument during level flight
Supporting power instruments during level flight
- Airspeed indicator
- Manifold pressure/tachometer
Primary instrument for pitch while ESTABLISHED in a turn
Supporting instruments for pitch while ESTABLISHED in a turn
- Attitude Indicator and the VSI
Level-off from climbs and descents - general guide
Use 10% of vertical speed - that will be when you begin to level off. At a rate of 500fpm, add power at 150 to 100 feet from desired altitude and level off starting at 50ft from the altitude
Nose High Recovery
Add power, pitch down, level the wings
Nose low recovery
Decrease power, level the wings, pitch up
What instruments should be used to make changes in pitch when flying with inoperative gyroscopic instruments?
VSI and airspeed indicator should be used to make smooth gradual changes.