Stages and Signs

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
167338
Filename:
Stages and Signs
Updated:
2012-08-24 22:52:02
Tags:
Surgery
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Description:
Surgery
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  1. How many different stages of anesthesia are there?
    4
  2. What is stage 1 of anesthesia?
    awake and alert
  3. What is stage 2 of anesthesia?
    excitement
  4. What is stage 3 of anesthesia?
    surgical anesthesia?
  5. What is stage 4 of anesthesia?
    too deep
  6. Which stage of anesthesia has planes?
    stage 3
  7. What are the different planes of anesthesia in stage 3?
    light, medium, deep planes
  8. Which stage and plane is ideal for surgery?
    stage 3, medium plane
  9. What are the most reliable signs to evaluate depths of anesthesia?
    • gross, purposeful, spontaneous movement (too light)
    • reflex movement in response to surgical anesthesia (too light)
    • a transient hemodynamic or respiratory change specifically in response to surgical stimulation
    • digging fingernail into the bone of the toe to attempt to stimulate a reflex
  10. What are some reliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
    • the history of the vaporize settings in past surgeries
    • the greater the muscle tone, the lighter the patient and vice versa
    • palpebral reflex
    • pupillary response
    • eyeball position
  11. How does the palpebral reflex help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
    • if present: ¬†light anesthesia
    • if not present: ¬†medium or deep anesthesia
    • this reflex can become easily fatigued so careful not to use it too much during one procedure
  12. How does the pupillary respone help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
    • pupil will constrict when a bright light is directed onto the retina
    • lack of response means too deep
  13. How does eyeball position help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
    • rotate ventrally for medium anesthesia
    • not rotate indicates too light or too deep
  14. Which drugs can affect eye position?
    ketamine and other opiods
  15. What are some less reliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
    • heart rate
    • breathing rate
    • blood pressure
  16. What are some unreliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
    • pupil size
    • shivering

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