Stages and Signs
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How many different stages of anesthesia are there?
What is stage 1 of anesthesia?
awake and alert
What is stage 2 of anesthesia?
What is stage 3 of anesthesia?
What is stage 4 of anesthesia?
Which stage of anesthesia has planes?
What are the different planes of anesthesia in stage 3?
light, medium, deep planes
Which stage and plane is ideal for surgery?
stage 3, medium plane
What are the most reliable signs to evaluate depths of anesthesia?
- gross, purposeful, spontaneous movement (too light)
- reflex movement in response to surgical anesthesia (too light)
- a transient hemodynamic or respiratory change specifically in response to surgical stimulation
- digging fingernail into the bone of the toe to attempt to stimulate a reflex
What are some reliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
- the history of the vaporize settings in past surgeries
- the greater the muscle tone, the lighter the patient and vice versa
- palpebral reflex
- pupillary response
- eyeball position
How does the palpebral reflex help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
- if present: light anesthesia
- if not present: medium or deep anesthesia
- this reflex can become easily fatigued so careful not to use it too much during one procedure
How does the pupillary respone help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
- pupil will constrict when a bright light is directed onto the retina
- lack of response means too deep
How does eyeball position help us determine the depth of anesthesia?
- rotate ventrally for medium anesthesia
- not rotate indicates too light or too deep
Which drugs can affect eye position?
ketamine and other opiods
What are some less reliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
- heart rate
- breathing rate
- blood pressure
What are some unreliable signs to evaluate the depths of anesthesia?
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