GCSE Geography

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GCSE Geography
2012-08-25 03:43:20
urban change part ten developed cities revitalizing CBD including Manchester Arndale case study

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  1. the CBD (...... ..... ...) = 
    • central business district 
    • the heart of a city and the original , oldest part but it doesn't look it !! . This is because it is a dynamic zone i.e. it is almost constantly being changed and revitalised to try and make sure that shoppers use it 
  2. CBD's now have to compete against
    out of town shopping centres (e.g. Trafford Centre or John Lewis on A34) & etailing (buying products on tinternent)
  3. we can revitalise CBD's by 
    • redeveloping parts of the shopping core into indoor shopping centres 
    • seperating shoppers from traffic 
  4. r
  5. redeveloping parts of the shopping core into indoor shopping centres provides
    • all year round protection from the British weather
    • and it also provides well-lit and heated environments in which to shop and meet people 
  6. we can seperate shoppers from traffic by 
    • keeping the main shopping high streets for pedestrians only 
    • and by diverting the traffic onto ring roads
  7. revitalisation is 
    the imprvement and rejuvination of something such as a CBD (central buisness dsitrict) perhaps by restablishing it on a new , usually improved basis
  8. Manchester was revitalised after the
    1996 IRA bombing , the Arndale was a main focus for revitalisation . 
  9. The IRA bombing mean that
    Manchester was revitalised quicker 
  10. The Arndale has has 
    two levels and is a covered mall lit by 80m long and 17m wide glazed ceiling 
  11. the fact that the Arndale is a covered mall lit by 80m long and 17m wide glazed ceiling  means 
    the Arndale has more space for more shops , bars , and cafes , and there is more access for disabled people especially as the floor is flat and there are plenty of lifts . The fact that the Arndale is has a glazed ceiling means that the shopping experience is more enjoyable in all weather and if it does get too hot they can always use their air conditioning 
  12. Many individual shops inside the Manchester Arndale have been improved for example
    Bon Marche now uses a wide range of elements such as an illuminated wall feature which will catch the consumers eye , rather than just a pianted wall . 
  13. The entrance to the Manchester Arndale has been modernised . The Next store ois next to the entrance of the Manchester Arndale and it has a
    23 metre high curved glass wall looking out over Urbis , this is a huge focal point 
  14. the .... .... and .... ... from exchange sqaure was created this provides a gateway to the modernised mall on ..... .... sreet 
    • dramatic glass
    • steel wall
    • New Cannon
  15. there is now a ---------------------------------------------------------------------- to both sides of the city, this means that areas have been ------- making them ----- and nicer for pedestrians 
    • 24 hour access allowing a walkway through the middle of the centre 
    • pedestrianised 
    • safer
  16. the final phase of the redevelopment included rejuvinating a 
    a single level market hall and the creation of the impressive glass-rooved Winter Garden which housed a number of restuarants and coffee shops . Together these cemented the Manchester Arndale's status as one of Europe's finest shopping and lesiure destinations 
  17. the parking for the Manchester Arndale is on the
    roof so provides nearby parking for shoppers
  18. City councils often cannot afford to redevelop every single part of their CBD so this leads to
    a series of subzones developing within the CBD these 4 subszones are : core , frame , zone of improvement and zone of decay 
  19. draw a diagram of a CBD showing the location of the : core , frame , zone of improvement , zone of decay , high rise office blocks , banks , specialist shops , department stores , university , theatres and cinemas , railway station , multi storey car parks , smaller shops , offices (insurance companies , solicitors) , bus and coach station