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2010-04-28 23:17:02

Third Test
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  1. which of the following listed below has no circulatory system?
    sea anemone
  2. what type of circulatory system is associated with hemolymph?
  3. what type of body plan is found in a planarian (only one body opening)?
  4. (w)what type of heart chamber receives blood?
  5. (w)what type of heart chamber pumps blood throughout the body to lungs/gills?
  6. (w)How many heart chambers does the amphibian have?
  7. In bony fish the ventricle pumps blood directly to the
  8. In all mammals the right atruim
    pumps the blood to the right ventricle
  9. In mammals, where does the pulmonary trunk take the blood?
    the lungs
  10. What is the thickest-walled and strongest blood vessel in mammals?
    aortic artery
  11. Both veins and arteries have the same general structure. An outer layer composed of fibrous connective tissue, a middle layer composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner layer composed of
    endothelial tissue
  12. (w) The systemic circuit pumps blood throughout the
  13. (w) The pulmonary circuit pumps blood to the
  14. (w) Is blood pressure highest in arteries or veins?
  15. All arteries take blood away from the heart, however they do not all carry oxygen rich blood. Which artery in the human body caries oxygen poor blood away from the heart?
    pulmonary trunk
  16. What purpose does oxygen serve during the electron transport chain reactions that occu within cellular miochondria?
    becomes reduced to water
  17. As carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood carbonic acid begins to form, as a result hydrogen ions are released. What happens to the hydrogen ions in the blood?
    they combine with hemoglobin
  18. (w) What is hypertension?
    High blood pressure
  19. At maturation red blood cells are saturated with hemoglobin proteins. In fact they are so specialized for the purpose of hemoglobin transport the cells lack
  20. which anitbody class is the most important in allergic reactions?
  21. Which antibody class is the main type in the bloodstream circulation?
  22. Which antibody class serves as the B cell receptor (BCR)?
  23. Both macrophages and dendritic cells are able to migrate to the lymph nodes after engulfing bacteria and activate T cells. By what means do these white blood cells do this?
    MHC complexes are utilized to present antigens to the T cells
  24. Maturation of T cells occur in the _______
  25. Nonspecific defenses to invasion of infectious agents include all of the following EXCEPT
  26. Redness, heat, swelling and pain are four of the typical outward signs of
    an inflammatory response
  27. During an inflammatory response, the individual's capillaries dilate in the damaged tissue region and the capillary walls become more permeable to blood flow. What causes this physiological change?
  28. Chronic inflammation is most characterized by
    inflammation that persists for weeks or longer
  29. This disease has been associated with chronic inflammation
    Lupus erythematosus (arthritis)
  30. Monocytes are a
    type of white blood cell
  31. monocytes can mature into
  32. Natural Killer Cells (NKC) are
    large granular lymphocytes
  33. Certain complement proteins join to form a membrane attack complex that
    produces holes in bacteria and some viruses
  34. ______ is/are produced by virus infected cells as a warning to noninfected cells.
  35. Specific defenses requries that the immune system be able to recognize a specific protein molecule on the surface of a foreign cell or virus. This surface protein is called _______________
    An antigen
  36. (w) Where do B cells first form?
    Bone marrow
  37. The basic protein structure of an antibody is________
    Y shaped
  38. ____________ are presented to T cells by dendritic cells or macrophages a after phagocytizing a pathogen.
  39. A T cell can develop into a cytotoxic T cel or ______
    Helper T cell
  40. The primary host for HIV is
    helper T cells
  41. active induced immunity develops
    naturally after infection, and after immunization
  42. _________ occurs when an allergic response occurs in the blood stream.
    Anaphylactic shock
  43. Other than immunity the lymphatic system serves to remove________
    excess water from body tissues
  44. Name two lymphatic organs _________ and ___________
    Thymas and Spleen
  45. Histamine produced by damaged tissue and mast cells causes specific physiological reactions such as__________
    blood vessel dilation
  46. How can a fever help during the inflammatory response?
    Temperature can affect growth
  47. Cnidarians and flatworms all have _______
    incomplete digestive tracts and a sac body plan
  48. Sessile filter feeders such as clams and oysters are ________
    continuous feeders
  49. Many reptiles such as the Brown tree snake have the ability to go long periods without eating. What kind of feeding strategy is observed with animas such as this?
    Observed with discontinuous feeders
  50. A strict meat-eater would be described as _______
    a carnivore
  51. Cows and horses eat only plant material and are therefore_____
  52. Saliva contains what digestive enzyme?
  53. What is the mass of food called after it has been chewed and ready for swallowing?
    a bolus
  54. What is the region in the throat shared b both the digestive and respiratory passages termed?
  55. How does the bolus move along the esophagus?
  56. What would best describe the pH of the stomach?
    around a pH 2
  57. What enzyme mixed with gastric juices in the stomach begin to breakdown protein?
  58. What does bile do?
    emulsifies fat in the small intestine
  59. What enzyme(s) COMPLETELY breaks down small peptide molecules in the intestine?
  60. What is the final breakdown product of protein?
    amino acids
  61. Wy do we need fats and oils in our diet?
    Our body uses them to produce steroids and cholesterol and plasma membranes
  62. The gallbladder stores?
  63. Digested fat and oil enters the _______ as lipoproteins
    lymphatic system
  64. Undigested food and water together make up the majority of weight found in feces. However, there is a third large component of fecal matter, what is it?
  65. Glucose is a _________
    simple sugar
  66. _________ is the sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the body's cell and environment
  67. Name one enzyme produced by the pancreas
    pancrantaic amalase
  68. What happens to carbon dioxide when it enters the blood?
    it forms carbonic acid
  69. Squids are _________
    carnivores and eukaryotic
  70. What does terrestrial mean?
    living on land
  71. Give me an example of a gastropod
  72. Do earthworms have a closed or open circulatory system?
  73. Earthworms are grouped in which class?
  74. What are the small bristle-like appendages found along the segmented body of an earthworm called?
  75. List at least 2 common anatomical features found with earthworms
    • 1.) closed circulatory system
    • 2.) segmented
  76. What is by far the largest animal phylum?
  77. What does metamorphisis mean?
    complete body change
  78. Name an animal that undergoes metamorphisis
  79. At what stage of a star fish's lfe do you find the occurance of bilateral symmetry?
  80. Give me an example of an arthropod
  81. What does it mean to molt?
    Shed an outside covering and growing larger
  82. Roughly how many species of insects have been identified?
  83. Give me an example of an echinoderm