Card Set Information
which of the following listed below has no circulatory system?
what type of circulatory system is associated with hemolymph?
what type of body plan is found in a planarian (only one body opening)?
(w)what type of heart chamber receives blood?
(w)what type of heart chamber pumps blood throughout the body to lungs/gills?
(w)How many heart chambers does the amphibian have?
In bony fish the ventricle pumps blood directly to the
In all mammals the right atruim
pumps the blood to the right ventricle
In mammals, where does the pulmonary trunk take the blood?
What is the thickest-walled and strongest blood vessel in mammals?
Both veins and arteries have the same general structure. An outer layer composed of fibrous connective tissue, a middle layer composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner layer composed of
(w) The systemic circuit pumps blood throughout the
(w) The pulmonary circuit pumps blood to the
(w) Is blood pressure highest in arteries or veins?
All arteries take blood away from the heart, however they do not all carry oxygen rich blood. Which artery in the human body caries oxygen poor blood away from the heart?
What purpose does oxygen serve during the electron transport chain reactions that occu within cellular miochondria?
becomes reduced to water
As carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood carbonic acid begins to form, as a result hydrogen ions are released. What happens to the hydrogen ions in the blood?
they combine with hemoglobin
(w) What is hypertension?
High blood pressure
At maturation red blood cells are saturated with hemoglobin proteins. In fact they are so specialized for the purpose of hemoglobin transport the cells lack
which anitbody class is the most important in allergic reactions?
Which antibody class is the main type in the bloodstream circulation?
Which antibody class serves as the B cell receptor (BCR)?
Both macrophages and dendritic cells are able to migrate to the lymph nodes after engulfing bacteria and activate T cells. By what means do these white blood cells do this?
MHC complexes are utilized to present antigens to the T cells
Maturation of T cells occur in the _______
Nonspecific defenses to invasion of infectious agents include all of the following EXCEPT
Redness, heat, swelling and pain are four of the typical outward signs of
an inflammatory response
During an inflammatory response, the individual's capillaries dilate in the damaged tissue region and the capillary walls become more permeable to blood flow. What causes this physiological change?
Chronic inflammation is most characterized by
inflammation that persists for weeks or longer
This disease has been associated with chronic inflammation
Lupus erythematosus (arthritis)
Monocytes are a
type of white blood cell
monocytes can mature into
Natural Killer Cells (NKC) are
large granular lymphocytes
Certain complement proteins join to form a membrane attack complex that
produces holes in bacteria and some viruses
______ is/are produced by virus infected cells as a warning to noninfected cells.
Specific defenses requries that the immune system be able to recognize a specific protein molecule on the surface of a foreign cell or virus. This surface protein is called _______________
(w) Where do B cells first form?
The basic protein structure of an antibody is________
____________ are presented to T cells by dendritic cells or macrophages a after phagocytizing a pathogen.
A T cell can develop into a cytotoxic T cel or ______
Helper T cell
The primary host for HIV is
helper T cells
active induced immunity develops
naturally after infection, and after immunization
_________ occurs when an allergic response occurs in the blood stream.
Other than immunity the lymphatic system serves to remove________
excess water from body tissues
Name two lymphatic organs _________ and ___________
Thymas and Spleen
Histamine produced by damaged tissue and mast cells causes specific physiological reactions such as__________
blood vessel dilation
How can a fever help during the inflammatory response?
Temperature can affect growth
Cnidarians and flatworms all have _______
incomplete digestive tracts and a sac body plan
Sessile filter feeders such as clams and oysters are ________
Many reptiles such as the Brown tree snake have the ability to go long periods without eating. What kind of feeding strategy is observed with animas such as this?
Observed with discontinuous feeders
A strict meat-eater would be described as _______
Cows and horses eat only plant material and are therefore_____
Saliva contains what digestive enzyme?
What is the mass of food called after it has been chewed and ready for swallowing?
What is the region in the throat shared b both the digestive and respiratory passages termed?
How does the bolus move along the esophagus?
What would best describe the pH of the stomach?
around a pH 2
What enzyme mixed with gastric juices in the stomach begin to breakdown protein?
What does bile do?
emulsifies fat in the small intestine
What enzyme(s) COMPLETELY breaks down small peptide molecules in the intestine?
What is the final breakdown product of protein?
Wy do we need fats and oils in our diet?
Our body uses them to produce steroids and cholesterol and plasma membranes
The gallbladder stores?
Digested fat and oil enters the _______ as lipoproteins
Undigested food and water together make up the majority of weight found in feces. However, there is a third large component of fecal matter, what is it?
Glucose is a _________
_________ is the sequence of events that results in gas exchange between the body's cell and environment
Name one enzyme produced by the pancreas
What happens to carbon dioxide when it enters the blood?
it forms carbonic acid
Squids are _________
carnivores and eukaryotic
What does terrestrial mean?
living on land
Give me an example of a gastropod
Do earthworms have a closed or open circulatory system?
Earthworms are grouped in which class?
What are the small bristle-like appendages found along the segmented body of an earthworm called?
List at least 2 common anatomical features found with earthworms
1.) closed circulatory system
What is by far the largest animal phylum?
What does metamorphisis mean?
complete body change
Name an animal that undergoes metamorphisis
At what stage of a star fish's lfe do you find the occurance of bilateral symmetry?
Give me an example of an arthropod
What does it mean to molt?
Shed an outside covering and growing larger
Roughly how many species of insects have been identified?
Give me an example of an echinoderm