AGP103 Plant Science

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AGP103 Plant Science
2012-09-08 20:18:29
plant science AGP 103 MSU

Plant science
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  1. Trichome
    any hairlike outgrowth from the surface of a plant
  2. Angiosperms
    • Flowering plants
    • Though they're relative newcomers to the plant world, 2/3 of today's plants are angiosperms
  3. Cultivation
    purposeful growing of plants to improve supply
  4. Extensive Agriculture
    • Linked to Agronomy
    • Trying to get the most yield or profit with the least amount of input
    • Think wheat plant - you can't look at every last detail of every single wheat plant
  5. Intensive Agriculture
    • Linked to horticulture
    • Large amount of input given the plant or area
    • Tends to have an increased cost
    • You're looking at every individual plant
    • Apple tree
    • Fruit, vegetable, flower production tend toward intensive
  6. Extensive/Intensive crossover crops
    • Tobacco, Cotton, Rice
    • These involve more input than say corn or wheat, so they tend to be a little closer to intensive
  7. Exceptions to places on Earth that support plant life?
    • The poles
    • Very, very, very dry deserts
    • Deep, deep oceans
    • High, high altitudes
  8. What is the major factor affecting where plants live?
  9. xeriphytes
    adapted to live in dry, hot conditions
  10. mesophytes
    plant adapted for survival in moderate (not too wet, not too dry) habitats
  11. hydrophyte
    plant adapted for survival in very wet habitats
  12. Where is the greatest amount of plant diversity found in the world?
    Near the equator
  13. Plants as food for humans
    • Of the 500,000-700,000 plant species, more than 80 percent of human food comes from six species
    • Tend to be grains - rice, wheat, corn, oats
  14. What crops make up more than 80 percent of feed plants?
    Corn, sorghum, barley, oats
  15. What is the number one fiber crop?
  16. biormediation
    use of plants to help remove contaminants such as heavy metals from the environment
  17. Difference between spices and herbs
    • Spices tend to be seeds from more tropical areas
    • Herbs tend to be leaves from more temperate climates
  18. Sink
    • Resources going into a plant
    • New leaves on a plant are a sink, because the plant is sending its energy to the development of leaves
  19. Biopharmaceuticals
    • Medicinal drugs produced using biotechnology
    • Produced by means other than direct extraction from a plant or other living organism
  20. Nutraceuticals
    Foods (or chemicals present in foods) that have a medicinal effect on human health
  21. Where do cacti store water?
  22. Binomial system
    Two names
  23. How do we know what family a plant is classified as?
    It's based on reproductive parts
  24. Family Rosaceae
    • Rose family
    • -Apple, pear, quince, peach, strawberry, blackberry are all part of the Family Rosaceae
  25. Family Solanaceae
    • Nightshade family
    • Potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, tobacco, petunia all fall into family solanaceae
  26. Genus
    A subcategory of family, categorization is based on similar flowers, roots, stems, buds and leaves
  27. Genus prunus
    • Stone fruits
    • peaches, apricots, almonds, tart cherry, sweet cherry, plum
  28. Species
    • A subcategory of genus
    • Composed of individuals that resemble one another
    • Able to breed among themselves, generally not able to breed with members of another species
  29. Family Rosaceae, Genus Prunus, Species persica
  30. Cultivar
    • Variety developed by plant breeders
    • Usually propogated vegetatively by stem cuttings or dividing
  31. Clone
    • Originates from single plant specimen
    • Maintained in cultivation by vegetative propogation
    • All clones from parent plant are exactly alike
  32. Latin descriptors for leaves
    • folius
    • folium
    • phyllum
  33. Latin descriptor for creeping
  34. Climbing
  35. White
    • alba
    • albus
    • luco
  36. Virens
  37. Red
  38. Monocot
    • one seed leaf
    • corn
    • flower parts are in multiples of three
  39. Dicot
    • 2 seed leaf
    • 4 or 5 flower parts
  40. Morphology
    shape or look
  41. Examples of biennials
    • Hollyhocks
    • Thistle
    • 2 growing seasons
  42. Gymnosperm
  43. How do you group plants?
    • By use
    • Class (monocot v dicot)
    • Length of life cycle
    • Morphology
    • Flower, Fruit or Seed Structure (angiosperm, gymnosperm)
  44. Types of stems
    • herbaceous (no woody tissue)
    • shrub (multiple stems)
    • tree (one main stem - trunk)
  45. Stem growth forms
    • erect
    • decumbent
    • creeping
    • climbing
  46. Adventitious roots
    Roots in an unusual place, that originate from stem or leaf tissue rather than from another root
  47. Fruit structure
    Based on succulence (fleshy or dry) and anatomical features
  48. What are the types of simple fleshy fruits
    • Drupes
    • Berry
    • Hesperidium
    • Pome
    • Pepos
  49. Drupes
    • Hard stony seed center
    • Peach
  50. Berry
    • Inner pulp with seeds
    • Tomato
  51. Hesperidium
    • leathery rind, fragrant, partitions
    • orange
  52. Pome
    • Overy or core surrounded by tissue
    • Apple
  53. Pepos
    • Firm rind, fleshy, watery pulp, many seeds
    • Watermelon, pumpkin
  54. Simple dry fruits
    • dehiscent
    • indehiscent
  55. Dehiscent
    • break open at maturity to shed seed
    • beans, peas, milkweed
  56. Indehiscent
    • do not break open at maturity
    • acorn, sunflower, corn, strawberry
  57. achene
    • a small, dry, hard, indehiscent fruit, one-seeded, nut-like, often mistaken for a seed
    • strawberry, raspberry, sunflower
  58. Aggregate Fruits
    • Derived from single flower with several or many pistils
    • Produce cluster of tiny fruitlets that remain on a single receptacle
    • Berries
  59. Multiple fruits
    • derived from cluster of individual flowers that fuse together as the plant develops
    • Pineapple
  60. Deciduous v. Evergreen
    Decidiuous loses its leaves, evergreens stay green
  61. How many gallons of water does it take to produce one serving of rice?
  62. How many pounds of vegetables do humans consume per capita (in the U.S.)
    417 pounds and we're still not eating enough veggies
  63. Narrow channels that act as intercellular cytoplasmic bridges to facilitate communication and transport of materials between  plant cells
  64. Purpose of a cell wall
    • protecting the intracellular contents
    • bestows rigidity to the plant
    • provides a porous medium for the circulation and distribution of water, minerals, and other nutrients
    • houses specialized molecules that regulate growth and protect the plant from disease.
  65. Cell membrane
    • Semi-permeable
    • Composed of proteins or fats
  66. Cytoplasm
    Jelly-like substance within the cell
  67. Nucleus
    contains the genetic material that codes for protein so plants can build and repair
  68. Chloroplast
    • Animal cells don't have this
    • Photosynthesis takes place here
  69. Mitochondrion
    • Cell respiration
    • Converts carbs into energy
  70. Vacuoles
    • Storage of water, certain chemicals
    • Also has a membrane
    • Helps keep cell rigid
  71. Meristematic tissues
    • Tiny places where cells divide repeatedly
    • When cells take on a role, like becoming part of a stem,, they become differentiated
  72. Apical meristem
    At the tip of shoots and roots, for primary growth upward or downward
  73. Lateral meristem
    Help plants grow wider over time
  74. Vascular tissues
    "Pipes" that conduct food and water throughout the plant
  75. xylem
    • conducts water and minerals
    • cells dividing inward
  76. Phloem
    • conducts sugar, food produced via photosynthesis
    • cells dividing outward
  77. Source
    when you have a place producing something, such as leaves producing photosynthesis, that's a source
  78. Sink
    • When you have something that needs attention, such as new leaves developing, that's a sink
    • Phloem makes it possible for the source to get food to the sink
  79. Cambium
    meristematic tissues giving rise to new xylem and phloem
  80. Four types of roots
    • Tap (many times, food source)
    • Fibrous (hold topsoil in place, prevent soil erosion)
    • Prop (penetrate soil for anchorage)
    • Aerial (may penetrate soil, may attach to other plants or objects)
  81. What types of stems have vascular cambium
    • dicots
    • monocots do not
  82. Cambium
    gives rise to new tissues laterally
  83. Nodes
    where leaves attach to stem
  84. Internodes
    space between nodes
  85. Fruit which contains one hard and stony seed
    • Drupe
    • Stone fruit
  86. Fruit which has a firm rind, fleshy watery pulp and numerous seeds
    • Pepo
    • pumpkin, watermelon
  87. Fruit which has a leathery rind with aromatic oils
    • Hesperidium
    • oranges
  88. simple fleshy fruit with inner pup and seeds
    • berry
    • tomato, banana
  89. Pome
    ovary or core surrounded by edible, fleshy tissue (apple)
  90. For the plant named Mentha piperita 'Chocolate', which is the cultivar?
  91. Monocots have characteristics including
    A. Embryo has single cotyledon
    B. Major leaf veins are netted
    C. Embryo has two or more cotyledons
    A. Embryo has single cotyledon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. A growing point that arises from a cell that did not contain preformed root or shoot initials is called
  93. Characteristics of plants
    • usually can produce its own food
    • reproduces
    • rareley is able to move around
    • many are green due to having chlorophyll
  94. Invented the binomial nomenclature system of naming plants
    Carl Linneaus
  95. T/F Simple dry fruits that break open at maturity are known as indehiscent
    • False
    • Dehiscents break open
  96. Which of the following statements is not true?
    A. Plants are placed into botanical family designations based on their flowers or reproductive features.
    B. Cultivars are usually propogated vegetatively by stem cuttings of division
    C. In the basic rules of nomenclature, the genus name always begins with a capital letter
    D. A perennial plant completes its life cycle in one growing season
    E. A biennel plant completes its life cycle in two growing seasons
    D. A perennial plant completes its life cycle in one growing season.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Where are guard cells found on a leaf?
    On the epidermis
  98. When a stem contains one leaf per node, what type of leaf arrangement is it?
  99. Opposite leaf arrangement
    an arrangement of leaves (or buds) on a stem (or twig) in which the leaves emerge from the stem in opposing pairs
  100. Alternate leaf arrangement
    an arrangement of leaves (or buds) on a stem (or twig) in which the leaves emerge from the stem one at a time.  This often makes the leaves appear to alternate on the stem.
  101. Whorled leaf arrangement
    A plant has whorled leaves when there are three or more equally spaced leaves at a node.
  102. Channels or bridges that connect cells are called:
  103. Heart shaped leaves are said to be
  104. Leaves with five lobes
  105. Leaf margins that look like a knife's edge are
  106. Leaves that sprout out in a circular patern from a center
  107. If a plant has rotundafolia in its name, its leaf shape is:
  108. Oval shaped leaf may be called
  109. A dioecious plant may have what type of flowers?
    A. Imperfect
    B. Pistillate
    C. Staminate
    D. All of the Above
    E. None of the Above
    D. All of the above. Dioecious means two houses
  110. When a plant has perfect flowers it is
  111. T/F In a stem, the phloem is always located toward the outside of the stem or root, and the xylem is always located toward the inside
  112. Simple leaf
    • undivided blade
    • if they have divisions, they do not reach the midrib
  113. Compound leaf
    • have a fragmented blade, with divisions reaching the midrib
    • have leaflets (walnut)
  114. Four whorls of a flower, starting with the outermost
    • Sepals (typically green)
    • Petals
    • Stamens (male parts)
    • Pistils (female parts)
  115. Collectively, sepals are called
  116. Collectively, petals are called
  117. Colored sepals are called
  118. Stamen parts
    • Anther (produces pollen)
    • Filament (stalk that supports anther)
    • Nectaries (at base of filament, produce sticky, sugary substance)
    • Adroecium (all the stamens)
  119. Pistil parts
    • Stigma (receives pollen, usually sticky)
    • Style (connects stigma to ovary)
    • Ovary (contains the egg and one or more ovules)
    • Gynoecium (all the pistils)
  120. What types of leaf attachments are there?
    • Petioles
    • Sessile
    • Sheathing (monocots, new shoots come through the others)
  121. Leaf venation
    • Paralell veins (monocots)
    • Pinnate (main vein, called midrib, from which all other veins arise)
    • Palmate (major veins all arise from same place, somewhat like fingers coming from the palm of a hand)
    • Trifoliate (three leaflets, such as a shamrock)
  122. Receptacle
    • enlarged part of pedicel where floral parts arise
    • on a strawberry, the receptacle is the fleshy part
    • in an apple, the ovary is recessed into the receptacle
  123. pedicel
    supports an idividual flower (connects the flower to the peduncle, or main stalk)
  124. Petiole
    leaf connection
  125. One half of the world's cropland is in
    China, India, Russia and the U.S.
  126. The three major crops grown in the U.S.
    Corn, wheat and soybeans
  127. What are the top three crops in the world?
    Wheat, corn, rice
  128. Most important fiber crop in the world
  129. Primary starch product worldwide
    White potatoes
  130. Main sugar crop in US?
    Sugar cane
  131. The growing point of a plant's shoots or roots, with actively dividing cells is known as the
    Apical meristem
  132. Complete flower
    Contains all four flower parts
  133. Incomplete
    missing one or more parts
  134. Perfect
    contains stamen and pistil (doesn't matter if it's lacking the sepals or petals)
  135. Pistillate
    only female parts
  136. Stamenate
    Only male
  137. Give an example of an incomplete, but perfect flower
    Corn - tassles are male, silks are female
  138. monoecious plants
    • one house
    • pistillate and staminate on same plant, like corn or begonias
  139. dioecious
    two houses, only staminate or pistillate, like buffalo grass or holly
  140. syonecious
    contains perfect flowers
  141. inflorescences
    multiple flowers are on one peduncle (stem)
  142. Rachis
    central axis, peduncle
  143. Solitary flower
    Only one flower on top of the rachis
  144. Spike
    Sessile, flowers are attached directly to the rachis
  145. Examples of sessile or spike flowers
    Corn (cob is the rachis) Salvia
  146. Racme
    Just like spike only with pedicels
  147. Panicle
    A compound raceme (the raceme has pedicels coming off the rachis, and the panicle has pedicels coming of the pedicels that came off the raceme)
  148. Corymb
    Different lengths of pedicels, attaching at a different locations and creating a flat-topped inflorescense
  149. Umbel
    All pedicels attach at the base
  150. head
    many sessile flowers tightly clustered on a flattened receptical
  151. Capitulum
    similar to head, but globe shaped (clover)
  152. Samara
    maple seed wings
  153. Parts of seed
    • embryo (tiny plant in seed - it's a living organism)
    • endosperm (food reserves - orchids do not produce this)
    • seed coat (protective outer surface)
  154. After fertilization, what happens?
    Ovary swells and becomes either fleshy or hard and dry to protect develping seeds
  155. Parts of embryo
    • Radicle - emrbryonic root
    • Cotyledons - embryonic leaves
    • hypocotyl - below embryonic leaves
    • Epicotyl - above embryhonic leaves
  156. Global seed market
    • $37 billion worldwide, wholesale value
    • Fasted growing category is vegetable seeds
    • Largest seed market is in the U.S.
  157. Fruit
    • Contains and protects seeds
    • Contains mature ovary and one or more ovules
    • Surrounded by ovary wall
  158. Pollination
    occurs when pollen from the anther lands on the stigma
  159. Ovules
    turn into seeds
  160. caryopsis
    • grass family, whole seed
    • fused to ovary wall
    • indehiscent dry fruit (corn, sorghum, wheat, oats, rye)
  161. Primary roots
    • Develops from the Seed
    • Or from Base of a Stem in Case of Ferns
  162. Secondary roots
    usually found in grain crops
  163. spongy mesophyll parenchyma
    contains the intercellular spaces through which carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water pass.
  164. The outside layer or skin of the leaf is largely made up of
    • epidermal cells, which contains openings or pores called stomates, each surrounded by two guard cells.
    • Generally more stomates in the lower epidermal layer.
  165. Primary function of leaves
  166. Guard cells
    • control the opening and closing of the stomata through which carbon dioxide enters, and oxygen is released.
    • Water also enters or escapes through the stomata
  167. Transpiration
    • Loss of water from the leaf by evaporation
    • helps regulate leaf temperature.
    • Also draws water into & through the xylem.
  168. Leaf Modifications
    • Cotyledons
    • Spines
    • Tendrils
    • Storage Leaves
    • Bracts
  169. Perianth
    Corolla and Calyx
  170. Spikelet
    Individual flowering unit of grasses
  171. Spikelet contains (8 parts)
    • Glumes
    • Rachilla
    • Florets
    • Lemma
    • Pales
    • Lodicules
    • Pistil
    • Stamens
  172. Glumes
    Leaflike bracts at base of spikelet and enclose the rest of spikelet
  173. Rachilla
    • Central axis of the spikelet
    • Stalk-like structure that connects all the florets
  174. Florets
    • 1 or more per spikelet
    • contain stamens and pistil with other bracts
    • uppermost floret usually undeveloped and sterile
  175. Lemma
    • The first bract at the base of the floret
    • Its tip is called the awn
  176. Palea
    • A bract located just above and opposite the lemma
    • Together, the lemma and palea enclose the stamens and pistil
  177. Lodicules
    • v. small bracts at base of pistil
    • serve no known funcion except for identification
  178. Pistils
    female organ of the plant
  179. Stamens (grass)
    • Male reproductive organs of the plant
    • in monocots, the stamens occur in multiples of 3
    • most grasses have 3 stamens
  180. Monocot seed part: Pericarp
    • Protection
    • it's the seed coat
  181. Monocot seed part: endosperm
    • carbohydrates and other energy compounds for embryo during germination
    • monocots tend to have endosperm even at the point of germination
  182. monocot seed parts: cotyledon
    seed leaf (scutellum)
  183. Monocot seed parts: Coleoptile
    Protective sheath for leaves during emergence
  184. Monocot seed parts: plumule
    • embryonic foliar leaves
    • becomes shoot
  185. Monocot seed parts: radicle
    develops into the primary root
  186. monocot seed parts: coleorhiza
    protective sheath around the radicle
  187. dicot seed parts: hilum
    scar where seed attached to ovary wall
  188. dicot seed parts: micropyle
    minute scar where pollen tube entered the ovule before fertilization of egg
  189. dicot seed part: raphe
    slight ridge along edge of seed
  190. dicot seed part: testa
    dicot seed coat
  191. dicot seed parts: cotyledons
    food reserves for seed dormancy and germination
  192. dicot seed parts: plumule
    • contains embryonic foliar leaves and epicotyl
    • epicotyl is above cotyledons, attaches to plumule
  193. dicot seed parts: hypocotyl
    elongates to pull the cotyledons and plumule out of the ground in epigeal emergence
  194. dicot seed parts: radicle
    • develops into primary root at germination
    • becomes tap root
  195. dicot seed parts: cotyledonary node
    where two cotyledons attach to rest of embryo
  196. Germination Stage I
    • Activation/imbibation
    • rapid absorption of water
  197. Germination Stage 2
    • Lag Phase/Digestion & Translocation
    • metabolic processes kick in
  198. Germination Stage III
    • Cell division & elongation
    • radicle emerges first
    • then plumule emerges
  199. Epigeal germination
    • cotyledons emerge above soil surface
    • results from hypocotyl extension
  200. Hypogeal germination
    • seed cotyledons remain underground
    • results from epicotyl elongation
  201. epigeal advantages
    • cotyledons may protect apical meristem if unfavorable weather conditions occur
    • herbivores may damage the cotyledons and not destroy the entire plant
  202. hypogeal advantages
    • takes less energy for emergency
    • can plant deeper for frost protection