Chapter 2

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Author:
leighton369
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16752
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Chapter 2
Updated:
2010-05-27 18:02:46
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Microworld
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Description:
Pathogens, Toxins, Foodborne illness & how to prevent it
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  1. T or F:
    Pathogens grow well at 155°F
    F
  2. T or F:
    A person with hepatitis A may experience double vision
    F
  3. T or F:
    Bacillus cereus is commonly linked with untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
    F
  4. T or F:
    Purchasing fish from approved, reputable suppliers can help prevent anisakiasis
    F
  5. T or F:
    A person with ciguatera fish poisoning often swets & experiences a burning sensation in the mouth
    F
  6. Microorganisms that cause illness are called _______.
    Pathogens
  7. What are the 4 types of pathogens that cause foodborne illness?
    • 1. Viruses
    • 2. Bacteria
    • 3. Parasites
    • 4. Fungi
  8. What are the 6 conditions that pathogens need to Grow?
    • FAT TOM:
    • Food
    • Acidity
    • Time
    • Temperature
    • Oxygen
    • Moisture
  9. What pH range is best for the growth of pathogens?
    4.6 to 7.5 (slightly acidic)
  10. What is the temperature danger zone?
    The temperatures where pathogens grow well (between 41° & 135°F)
  11. What foods are most likely to become unsafe?
    • Milk & dairy products
    • Eggs
    • Meats
    • Poultry
    • Fish
    • Shellfish & Crustaceans
    • Baked potatoes
    • Cooked rice, beans, veggies
    • Soy products
    • Sprouts & seeds
    • sliced melons
    • cut tomatoes
    • untreated garlic & oil mixtures
  12. What factors can you most easily control?
    Time & Temperature
  13. What are the characteristics of viruses?
    • 1. They survive freezer temperatures
    • 2. They cannot grow on food but can in a host that eats the food
    • 3. Can contaminate both food & water
    • 4. Can be transmitted from person to person or by food-contact surfaces
  14. Three things to prevent the spread of viruses
    • 1. Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting or have diarrhea or jaundice from working
    • 2. Make sure food handlers wash hands
    • 3. Minimize bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food
  15. What foods are linked to Hepititis A & Norovirus?
    • 1. Read-to-eat food
    • 2. Shellfish from contaminated waters
  16. Jaundice is a symptom of _______
    Hepititis A
  17. What are the phases of bacterial growth?
    • 1. Lag
    • 2. Log
    • 3. Stationary
    • 4. Death
  18. What food is comonly linked with Bacillius cereus?
    Cerial products such as cooked rice dishes
  19. How can you prevent the spread of Bacillius cereus?
    • 1. Cook food to minimum internal temperatures
    • 2. Hold food at proper temperatures
    • 3. Cool food correctly
  20. What food are commonly linked with Listeriosis?
    Read-to-eat foods, deli meats, & hot dogs
  21. What population are most affected by Listeria monocytogenes?
    Pregnant women & their unborn children
  22. How can you prevent the spread of listeriosis?
    • 1. Throw out any product that is past it's due date
    • 2. prevent cross-contamination with ready-to-eat food
  23. What is the microorganism that causes Hemorrhagic colitis?
    Shiga-toxin-producing E. Coli
  24. What food is most commonly linked with Hemorrhagic colitis
    Raw/undercooked ground beef
  25. What symptoms are most common for Hemorrhagic colitis?
    • 1. Diarrhea that becomes bloody
    • 2. Abdominal cramps
    • 3. In severe cases, kidney failure
  26. How can you prevent the spread of Hemorrhagic colitis
    • 1. Cook ground beef to a minimum internal temperature of 155°F
    • 2. Purchase ground beef from an approved, reputable supplier
  27. What foods are commonly linked with Clostridium perfringens?
    Stews & gravies made from meat & poultry
  28. How can you prevent the spread of Clostridium perfringens?
    • 1. Cool & reheat food correctly
    • 2. Hold food at correct temperatures
  29. What foods are commonly linked to Clostridium botulinum
    Improperly canned foods
  30. What are symptoms linked to Botulism poisoning?
    • Initial nausea & vomiting
    • Weakness
    • Double-vision
    • Difficulty in speaking & swallowing
    • Death
  31. How can you prevent botulism poisoning?
    Inspect & throw out cans that are puffed at the ends
  32. What foods are commonly linked to Salmonellosis?
    Eggs & poultry
  33. How can you prevent the spread of Salmonella?
    • 1. Cook poultry & eggs to minimum internal temperatures
    • 2. Prevent cross-contamination
  34. What food is most commonly linked with Shigella poisoning?
    Salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken, macaroni)
  35. How can you prevent the spread of Shigellosis?
    • 1. Employees ash hands
    • 2. Keep flies outside operation
    • 3. Keep foodhandlers that have diarrhea out of the operation
  36. What food is most commonly linked with Staphyococcal gastroenteritis?
    Salads containing TCS food (potato, tuna, shrimp, chicken, macaroni)
  37. How would you prevent the spread of Staphlococcus aureus?
    • 1. Careful washing of the hands
    • 2. Cover wounds & do not touch with hands
    • 3. Hold, cool, & reheat foods correctly
  38. What food is linked to Vibrio gastroenteritis?
    Oysters from contaminated waters
  39. How can you prevent the spread of Vibrio vulnificus?
    • 1. Cook oysters to minimum internal temperature
    • 2. Purchase oysters at an approved, reputable supplier
  40. What food is most commonly linked to Anisakis simplex?
    • Herring
    • Cod
    • Mackerel
  41. What are the most common symptoms of Anisaiasis?
    • 1. Tingling in throat
    • 2. Coughing up worms
  42. 1. What is the common cause of Crytoporidiosis & Giardiasis?
    2. What is the common preventive measure?
    • 1. Produce from contaminated water supplies
    • 2. Purchase from an approved, reputable supplier
  43. What foods are most commonly liked to Scombroid poisoning?
    What is the toxin?
    • Tuna
    • Mahi Mahi

    Histamine
  44. How do you prevent the spread of Scombroid poisoning?
    Purchase fish from an approved, reputable supplier.
  45. Food most commonly linked with Cigatera fish poisoning
    • Barracuda
    • Grouper
  46. What is the most important way of preventing Cigutarera fish poisoning
    Purchasing from an approved, reputable suppliers
  47. What food is commonly linked with Paralytic shellfish poisoning?
    • Clams
    • Mussels
    • Oysters
    • Scallops
  48. What are the common symptoms of Saxitoxin?
    • 1) Numbness
    • 2) Tingling of the mouth, face, arms, & legs
  49. What is the most important prevention measure for Paralytic shellfish poisoning?
    Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.
  50. What foods are commonly linked with neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?
    • Clams
    • Oysters
    • Mussels
  51. What are the most common symptoms of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?
    • 1) Tingling & numbness of the lips, tongue, & throat
    • 2) Reversal of hot & cold sensations
  52. What is the most important prevention measure for Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning?
    Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.
  53. What foods are commonly linked with Amnesic shellfish poisoning?
    • Clams
    • Mussels
    • Oysters
    • Scallops
  54. What are the most common symptoms of Amnesic shellfish poisoning?
    • Confusion
    • Memory Loss
    • Disorientation
    • Seizure
    • Coma
  55. What is the most important prevention measure for Amnesic shellfish poisoning?
    Purchasing from an approved, reputable supplier.
  56. T or F:
    All pathogens need oxygen to grow
    F
  57. T or F:
    The most important way to prevent foodborne illnesses causes by viruses is to control time and temperature.
    F
  58. T or F:
    Bacillus cees is commonly linked with raw poultry
    F
  59. T or F:
    Parasites cannot grow in food
    T
  60. Which of the below is NOT a TCS food:

    Mashed potatoes
    Orange juice
    Pizza with diced tomatoes and green pepper
    Poached salmon
    Refried beans
    Scrambled eggs
    Shrimp fried rice
    Tofu ice cream
    Vanilla milk shake
    Whole-wheat bread
    • Orange juice
    • Whole-wheat bread
  61. List the 6 conditions pathogens need to grow
    • F - Food
    • A - Acidity
    • T - Time
    • T - Temperature
    • O - Oxygen
    • M - Moisture
  62. Foodborne pathogens grow well at temperatures:

    A. below 32°F
    B. between 1°F and 40°F
    C. between 41°F and 135°F
    D. above 212°F
    C.
  63. FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and...

    A. Meat
    B. Moisture
    C. Melatonin
    D. Management
    B
  64. Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, and throat of humans:

    A. Giardia Duodenalis
    B. Bacillus cereus
    C. Clostridium batulinum
    D. Staphylococcus aureus
    D
  65. While commonly linked with contamination of ground beef, what pathogen has also been linked with contaminated produce?

    A. Bacillus cereus
    B. Salmonella spp.
    C. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli
    D. Clostridium perfringens
    C
  66. Which practice can reduce Salmonella spp. in poultry to safe levels:

    A. Storing at 55°F or higher
    B. Inspecting canned food for damage
    C. Cooking food to the right temperature
    D. Purchacing oysters from approved, reputable suppliers
    C.
  67. Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen:

    A. Staphylococcus aureus
    B. Norovirus
    C. Vibrio vulificus
    D. Salmonelle spp.
    A.
  68. Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage:

    A. Hepatitis A
    B. Anisaiasis
    C. Shigellosis
    D. Botulism
    A
  69. Viruses such as Norovirus and hepatitis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to:

    A. Use pasteurized eggs
    B. wash their hands
    C. determine the moisture level
    D. purchase beef from approved reputable suppliers
    B
  70. What is the best way to prevent a foodborne illness caused by seafood toxins?

    A. Freezing seafood prior to cooking it
    B. Purchasing smoked or cured seafood
    C. Purchasing seafood from an approved, reputable supplier
    D. Cooking seafood to the right minimum internal temperature
    C
  71. A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memoy loss. What illness was most likely the cause?

    A. Amnesic shellfish poisoning
    B. Paralytic shellfish poisoning
    C. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
    D. Hemorrhagic shellfish poisoning
    A
  72. Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless they have been:

    A. stored at 41°F or lower
    B. frozen before cooking or serving
    C. purchased from an approved, reputable supplier
    D. cooked to an internal temperature of 135°F
    C
  73. What food items are better able to support the growth of pathogens?
    • Milk
    • Eggs
    • Meats
    • Poultry
    • Fish/shellfish
    • Cooked rice, beans, vegetables
    • Soy products
    • Sprouts
    • Sliced melons, cut tomatoes
    • Untreated garlic & oil mixtures
  74. How can an outbreak of Norovirus be prevented?
    Practicing good personal hygiene
  75. What measures should be taken to prevent a seafood-specific foodborne illness?
    Purchasing seafood from approved reputable suppliers
  76. How can plant toxins be prevented from getting into food?
    Purchase from only approved, reputable suppliers
  77. Foodborn pathogens grow well at temperatures

    A. below 32°F
    B. between 1°F & 40°F
    C. between 41°F & 135°F
    D. above 212°F
    C
  78. FAT TOM stands for Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen and

    A. Meat
    B. Moisture
    C. Melatonin
    D. Management
    B
  79. Which pathogen is primarily found in the hair, nose, & throat of humans

    A. Giardia duodenalis
    B. Bacillus cereus
    C. Clostridium botulinum
    D. Staphylococcus aureus
    D
  80. Which practice can reduce Salmonella in poultry to safe levels?

    A. Storing food at 55°F or higher
    B. Inspecting canned food for damage
    C. Cooking food to the right temperature
    D. Purchasing oyster from approved, reputable suppliers
    C
  81. Covering wounds can help prevent the spread of which pathogen?

    A. Staphylococcus aureus
    B. Norovirus
    C. Vibrio vulnificus
    D. Salmonella
    A
  82. Which foodborne illness has been linked with ready-to-eat food and shellfish contaminated by sewage?

    A. Hepititus A
    B. Anisakiasis
    C. Shigellosis
    D. Botulism
    A
  83. Viruses such as Norovirus and Hepititis A can be spread when foodhandlers fail to

    A. use pasturized eggs
    B. wash their hands
    C. determine the correct moisture level
    D. purchase beef from approved, reputable suppliers
    B
  84. What is the best way to prevent a foodborne illness caused by seafood toxins

    A. Freezing seafood prior to cooking it
    B. Purchase smoked or cured seafood
    C. Purchasing seafood from approved, reputable suppliers
    D. Cooking seafood to the right minimum internal temperature
    C
  85. A person who ate raw oysters later became disoriented and suffered memory loss. What illness was most likely the cause

    A. Amnesic shelllfish poisoning
    B. Paralytic shelllfish poisoning
    C. Neurtoxic shelllfish poisoning
    D. Hemorrhagic shelllfish poisoning
    A
  86. Foodservice operations should not use mushrooms unless they have been

    A. stored at 41°F
    B. frozen before cooking or serving
    C. purchased from an approved, reputable supplier
    D. cooked to an internal temperature of 135°F
    C

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