Movement: Lecture 1 8/20
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Movement: Lecture 1 8/20
review of lecture 1 8/20 for human movement
splits body into left and right
What actions occur in the sagittal plane?
flexion and extension
splits the body into front and back
splits the body into tops and bottoms
What actions occur in the frontal plane?
abduction and adduction
What actions occur in the transverse plane?
Each plane is oriented in relation to the body,
not to the world. When the body or any of its segments change position, the planes change their orientation along with them
a line that is perpendicular to the plane
flexion and extension
hyperextension; dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of ankle
fingers/toes; ulnar and radial deviation of wrist
longitudinal (or vertical)
horizontal abduction and adduction
subtalar joint; midtarsal joint; radio-ulnar joint
Open Chain Joint Movements:
proximal joint is fixed or stable while the distal joint moves
reaching to grasp an object in space or kicking a ball
Closed Chain Joint Motion:
distal joint is fixed or stable, and proximal joint moves
stance phase of walking and rising from chair or performing a pull-up
the property of matter that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field
Are weight and mass the same?
What is weight?
an example of a FORCE, specifically, the force of gravity acting at or near the surface of the Earth
Weight is a gravitational force that is the product of:
a mass and a constant gravitational acceleration (g)
g=32ft/sec2 or 9.8mt/sec2
Center of Mass (Center of Gravity [COG])
(geometric) point around which every particle of a body's mass is equally distributed. A body behaves as if its entire mass acts or is acted upon at its center of gravity
COG located at:
sacral promontory, anterior to S2 (PSIS), at 55% of body height
therapists often analyze weight-bearing activities where, for example, a person stands and controls a mass atop the hip joint
The COG of the entire lower extremity, the body segment that lies distal to the hip joint, is located just proximal to the:
With a large mass, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a low position of center of gravity, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a small mass, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a large base of support (BOS), is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a vertical projection of COG to a point near the boundary of the BOS, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a high position of center of gravity, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a small base of support, is the joint more stable or mobile?
With a vertical projection of COG to a point near the center of BOS, is the joint more stable or mobile?
What are the three major types of joints?
: sutures b/w bones in skull
amphiarthroses; slightly moveable
: disc articulations b/w bones in vertebral column; symphysis pubis; inferior tibiofibular joint
diarthroses; freely movable
permit relatively free movement b/w body segments
Name the types of synovial joints:
Name the uniaxial synovial joints:
interphalangeal joints; elbow
proximal radio-ulnar joint
Name the biaxial synovial joints:
carpal-metacarpal joint of the thumb
Name the triaxial synovial joints:
ball and socket
Ball and socket:
gleno-humeral joint, hip joint
facet joints in spine
What are some features of synovial joints?
two bones whose articular surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage
joint space enclosed by a fibrous capsule
synovial membrane lining joint space
has position(s) in its joint range of motion where the joint space's volume is at a minimum, and the joint is close-packed
What does the synovial membrane lining a synovial joint secrete?
synovial fluid, which fills the joint space and provides lubrication and nourishment to the articular cartilage
What is a closed packed position of a synovial joint?
each synovial joint has a point in its range of motion where
its surfaces are maximally congruent
its capsule and ligaments are maximally elongated and taut
its surfaces are maximally compressed
Points in the range of motion that are not close-packed positions are:
Is the joint more stable in close-packed or loose-packed positions?
close-packed: more stable and least mobile
study of gross movements of bones and joints
study of small amplitude motions of bones at joint surface:
glide (or slide)
general term for specific movements of joint surfaces. Normal joint surface movement is necessary to ensure long-term joint integrity
What can "roll" of arthrokinematics be compared to?
rolling of a tire on a surface
What can "glide" of arthrokinematics be compared to?
tire slipping without rolling
What would happen if the moving joint surface rolls on its partner without simultaneously gliding?
the surfaces would separate in some places and impinge in others
What produces roll and glide motions?
Movements at joint surfaces (arthrokinematics) follow the rules of:
concavity and convexity
each joint or articulation involves two bony surfaces, one that is convex and one that is concave
When the concave surface is fixed and the convex surface moves on it, the conves surface rolls and glides in:
When the convex surface is fixed and the concave surface moves on it, the concave surface rolls and glides in:
the same direction