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What is the CNS consist of?
brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS consist of?
all nervous structures except the brain and spinal cord
What is a neuron?
structural and functional unit of the nervous system; nerve cell
What is an internuncial neuron?
neuron interposed between connecting two other neurons
What is a neuroglia?
supportive cell of the nervous system; includes microglia, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes
What is a dendrite?
cell process which brings impulses toward the cell body
What is an axon?
cell process which takes impulses away from the nerve cell body
What is a synapse?
- area of functional continuity between neurons; where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another
- relaying of info between neurons
What is a receptor?
sense organs/cells which receive stimuli from the environment
What is an effector?
muscles and glands which respond to impulses carried to them by nerves
What is a reflex?
involuntary, unlearned response to stimuli; a reflex arc consists of an afferent neuron, a central neuron, and an efferent neuron
What is a ganglia?
group of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (in the PNS)
What is a nuclei?
group of nerve cell bodies within the CNS (brain or spinal cord)
What is gray matter?
areas in the CNS consisting of nonmyelinated nerve tissue (nerve cell bodies)
What is white matter?
substance found in the spinal cord and brain composed of myelinated nerve fibers
What is reticular matter?
intermingling of white and gray matter
What is myelin?
- a white fatty material which coats the nerve processes
- insulated the axon and increases the speed of impulses
What is decussation?
intersection or crossing
What is contralateral?
What is ipsilateral?
What are some examples of components within the nervous system?
- sensations such as:
these sensations are transmitted to the CNS via sensory tracts and allows the individual to interact with their environment
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?
- frontal (primary motor)
- parietal (primary sensory)
- temporal (primary auditory)
- occipital (primary visual)
What does the frontal lobe control?
- primary motor cortex
- exhibits influence over:
- abstract thinking
What is broca's area?
- motor region for speech in the frontal lobe
- LEFT= affects movement of mouth for speech
- RIGHT= affects nonverbal communication
What is the primary motor cortec responsible for?
contralateral voluntary control of the UEs and facial mvmts
other motor areas, such as the premotor area, control trunk musculature and postural changes. the supplementary motor area controls orientation of the eyes and head, initiation of mvmt and bilateral sequential mvmt
What does the parietal lobe control?
- primary sensory cortex
- perception of sensory info and provides meaning to stimuli
- perceptual learning
- short term memory function
- -person may not like to be touched
What does the temporal lobe control?
- primary auditory cortex
- visual perception
- long term memory
- musical discrimination
- -pt may need increased time and write things down
What is wernicke's area?
- in the temporal lobe
- hears and understands spoken language
- pt may not hear or understand
What does the occiptal lobe control?
- primary visual cortex
- organization/interpretation of visual info
- eyes take in visual info and send to cortex
Which hemisphere of the cerebrum do pts process info in a linear manner?
left hemisphere-95% of population
- produce written/spoken info
- logical/organized manner
- positive emotions such as love/happiness
What are some common impairments seen in left hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
- difficulty initiating, sequencing, and processing a task
- apraxia (inability to plan motor tasks)
- difficulting producing or comphrending speech
- perseveration (stuck on one thing, verbal or motor, and repeat it over and over)
- speech or motor behaviors
Which hemisphere of the cerebrum involves nonverbal and artistic abilities?
- process info in a holistic manner
- process nonverbal stimuli such as designs complex shapes, speech info
- eye-hand coordination
- spatial relationships
- ability to communicate nonverbally
- sustaining posture or mvmt
- perceiving negative emotions such as unhappiness or anger
What are some common impairments seen in right hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
- poor judgement
- unrealistic expectations
- denial of deficits/disability
- disturbances in body image
What does the hypothalamus regulate?
- body temp
- sexual activity
- sleep-wake cycle
What system guides emotions that reguate behaviors?
What controls balance and coordination?
located below the occiptal lobe
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
- midbrain -reflex center for auditory, visual, and tactile responses
- pons- reflex center for head orientation in response to auditory or visual stimulation (cranial nerves 5 and 7 are found here)
- medulla- contains motor and sensory nuclei for neck and mouth and control center for heart and respiration rates
What is the spinothalamic tract?
- ascending sensory tract that controls pain and temperature
- anterior in the spinal cord
What is the corticospinal tract?
major motor tract; skilled mvmts of extremities that crosses from one side to the other in the brain stem
common sign of damage is the babinski sign
What is the babinski sign?
great toe extends and other toes sply when an object or finger is run along the lateral border of the foot
What is the inabilty to plan motor tasks?
What nervous system provides reactions to outside stimulation?
What nervous sytem is involuntary and innervated glands, smooth muscle, and the myocardium?
maintains homeostasis, regulation of digestion, circulation, and cardiac muscle contraction
Within what nervous system do neurons not have an ability to regenerate?
Within what nervous system is it possible for neurons to regenerate and at what rate?
- 1.0mm per day depending on the size of the nerve fiber
What are some indications of an upper motor neuron lesion?
- found in descending motor tracts within the cerebral cortex
- indicated by spasticity, muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, mild disuse atrophy, abnormal reflexes
- possibilty of clonus
- head inury
- cerebral palsy
- brain tumors
What are some indications of a lower motor neuron lesion?
- affects nerves or axons at or below the level of the brain stem
- indicated by abnormal EMG potentials, fasciculations, paralysis, flaccidity, weakening of muscles, absent reflexes, atrophy of skeletal muscles
- spinal cord injury
- spinal cord tumors
- muscular dystrophy
What is the inability to initiate mvmt?
What is apraxia?
inability to perform purposeful learned mvmts, although there is no sensory or motor impairment
What is the inability to formulate an initial motor plan and sequence tasks where the propprioceptive input necessary for mvmt is impaired?
What is idemotor apraxia?
a person plans a mvmt or task but cant volitionally perform it
What is the inability to perform coordinated mvmts?
What is bradykinesia?
mvmt that is very slow
What is broca's aphasia?
speech is difficult, but comprehension is usually functional or normal
What is an involuntary alternating spasmotic contraction of a muscle precipitated by a quick stretch reflex?
characteristic of UMN lesion
What is another name for double vision?
What is dysarthria?
slurred and impaired speech due to motor deficit of the tongue and other muscles essential to speech
What is the inability to perform rapidly alternating mvmts?
What is dysmetria?
inability to control the range of a mvmt and the force of muscular activity
pt may over-shoot or under-shoot -> put a weight on them
What is the inability to properly swallow?
What is emotional lability?
characteristic of right hemisphere infarct. inability to control emotions and outburts of laughing or crying that are inconsistent with the situation
What is expressive aphasia?
can receive info but cant express
What is global aphasia?
present with both expressive and receptive deficits. prognosis for recovery with speech is usually poor. pts speech is nonfluent and comprehension is significantly impaired
What is the condition of weakness on one side of the body?
What is the condition of paralysis on one side of the body?
What is the loss of the right or left half of the visual field in both eyes?
What is the ability to perceive the direction and extent of mvmt of a joint or body part?
What is neglect?
inability to interpret stimuli on one side of the body due to a lesion on the other side of the brain
What is perservation?
repeatedly performing same segment of a task or repeatedly saying the same word/phrase without a purpose
What is the ability to perceive the static position of a joint or body part?
What is receptive aphasia?
can express but cant receive
What is rigidity?
state of severe hypertonicity where sustained muscle contraction does not allow for any mvmt for a specific joint
stiffness, but does have a little give
What is the result of brain damage that presents with mass mvmt patterns that are primitive in nature and coupled with spasticity?
*uses whole arm to bend elbow
What is wernicke's aphasia?
person usual able to verbalize, but is not frequently functional