all nervous structures except the brain and spinal cord
What is a neuron?
structural and functional unit of the nervous system; nerve cell
What is an internuncial neuron?
neuron interposed between connecting two other neurons
What is a neuroglia?
supportive cell of the nervous system; includes microglia, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes
What is a dendrite?
cell process which brings impulses toward the cell body
What is an axon?
cell process which takes impulses away from the nerve cell body
What is a synapse?
area of functional continuity between neurons; where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another
relaying of info between neurons
What is a receptor?
sense organs/cells which receive stimuli from the environment
What is an effector?
muscles and glands which respond to impulses carried to them by nerves
What is a reflex?
involuntary, unlearned response to stimuli; a reflex arc consists of an afferent neuron, a central neuron, and an efferent neuron
What is a ganglia?
group of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (in the PNS)
What is a nuclei?
group of nerve cell bodies within the CNS (brain or spinal cord)
What is gray matter?
areas in the CNS consisting of nonmyelinated nerve tissue (nerve cell bodies)
What is white matter?
substance found in the spinal cord and brain composed of myelinated nerve fibers
What is reticular matter?
intermingling of white and gray matter
What is myelin?
a white fatty material which coats the nerve processes
insulated the axon and increases the speed of impulses
What is decussation?
intersection or crossing
What is contralateral?
What is ipsilateral?
What are some examples of components within the nervous system?
sensations such as:
these sensations are transmitted to the CNS via sensory tracts and allows the individual to interact with their environment
What are the 4 lobes of the cerebrum?
frontal (primary motor)
parietal (primary sensory)
temporal (primary auditory)
occipital (primary visual)
What does the frontal lobe control?
primary motor cortex
exhibits influence over:
What is broca's area?
motor region for speech in the frontal lobe
LEFT= affects movement of mouth for speech
RIGHT= affects nonverbal communication
What is the primary motor cortec responsible for?
contralateral voluntary control of the UEs and facial mvmts
other motor areas, such as the premotor area, control trunk musculature and postural changes. the supplementary motor area controls orientation of the eyes and head, initiation of mvmt and bilateral sequential mvmt
What does the parietal lobe control?
primary sensory cortex
perception of sensory info and provides meaning to stimuli
short term memory function
-person may not like to be touched
What does the temporal lobe control?
primary auditory cortex
long term memory
-pt may need increased time and write things down
What is wernicke's area?
in the temporal lobe
hears and understands spoken language
pt may not hear or understand
What does the occiptal lobe control?
primary visual cortex
organization/interpretation of visual info
eyes take in visual info and send to cortex
Which hemisphere of the cerebrum do pts process info in a linear manner?
left hemisphere-95% of population
produce written/spoken info
positive emotions such as love/happiness
What are some common impairments seen in left hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
difficulty initiating, sequencing, and processing a task
apraxia (inability to plan motor tasks)
difficulting producing or comphrending speech
perseveration (stuck on one thing, verbal or motor, and repeat it over and over)
speech or motor behaviors
Which hemisphere of the cerebrum involves nonverbal and artistic abilities?
process info in a holistic manner
process nonverbal stimuli such as designs complex shapes, speech info
ability to communicate nonverbally
sustaining posture or mvmt
perceiving negative emotions such as unhappiness or anger
What are some common impairments seen in right hemisphere injuries of the cerebrum?
denial of deficits/disability
disturbances in body image
What does the hypothalamus regulate?
What system guides emotions that reguate behaviors?
What controls balance and coordination?
located below the occiptal lobe
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
midbrain -reflex center for auditory, visual, and tactile responses
pons- reflex center for head orientation in response to auditory or visual stimulation (cranial nerves 5 and 7 are found here)
medulla- contains motor and sensory nuclei for neck and mouth and control center for heart and respiration rates
What is the spinothalamic tract?
ascending sensory tract that controls pain and temperature
anterior in the spinal cord
What is the corticospinal tract?
major motor tract; skilled mvmts of extremities that crosses from one side to the other in the brain stem
common sign of damage is the babinski sign
What is the babinski sign?
great toe extends and other toes sply when an object or finger is run along the lateral border of the foot
What is the inabilty to plan motor tasks?
What nervous system provides reactions to outside stimulation?
What nervous sytem is involuntary and innervated glands, smooth muscle, and the myocardium?
maintains homeostasis, regulation of digestion, circulation, and cardiac muscle contraction
Within what nervous system do neurons not have an ability to regenerate?
Within what nervous system is it possible for neurons to regenerate and at what rate?
1.0mm per day depending on the size of the nerve fiber
What are some indications of an upper motor neuron lesion?
found in descending motor tracts within the cerebral cortex