Week 1 & 2 Biostatistic

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Week 1 & 2 Biostatistic
2012-08-27 20:24:33
Biostatistics Research

Biostatistics & Research basic terms
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  1. Reality Testing
    Validate or test the reality of something or existence
  2. Introspection
    Process of turning your attention inward toward  your own thoughts to provide increased awareness & understanding of the flow and interplay of feelings & ideas
  3. Intuition
    Insight of understanding of a situation or event as a whole that usually cannot be logically explained
  4. Reasoning
    • Processing and organizing ideas to reach conclusions.
    • 1. Problematic
    • 2. Operational
    • 3. Dialetic
    • 4. Logistical (Inductive v. Deductive)
  5. Problematic Reasoning
    Invloves identifying a problem, selecting solutions to the problem  and then resolving the problem.
  6. Operational Reasoning
    Involves identification & discrimination among many alternatives or viewpoints & focuses on the process of debating alternatives.
  7. Dialectic Reasoning
    Involves the holistic perspective, in which the whole is greater than the sum of the parts and examining factors that are opposite & making sense of them  by merging then into a single unit or idea that is greather thatn either alone.
  8. Inductive Reasoning
    Reasoining from the specific to the general in which particular instances are observed & then combined into a larger whole or general statement.
  9. Deductive Reasoning
    Reasoning from general to specific, or from a general premise to a particular situation
  10. Logistic Reasoning
    Used to break the whole into parts that can be carefully examined, as can the relationship of the parts, one can understand teh whole by examining the parts.
  11. Science
    Coherent body of knowledge composed of research findings, tested theories, scientific principles,  & laws for a discipline
  12. Qualitative Research Definintion
    Systematic, interactive, subjectie approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning.
  13. Qualitative Research Examples
    • Phenomenological
    • Grounded Theory
    • Ethnographic
    • Historical
    • Philosophical
    • Critical Social Theory
  14. Outcomes Research
    Important scientific methodology that was developmed to examine the end result of patient care. The strategies used in outcomes research are a departure from traditional scientific endeavors & incorporate evaluation research, epidemiology, & economic theory perspective.
  15. Intervention Research
    New methodology for investigating teh effectiveness of a nursing intervention in achieving teh desired outcome or outcomes in a natural setting.
  16. Theory
    Consists of an integreated set of definied concepts, existence, statements & relational statements taht present a view of a phenomenon & can be used to describe, explain, predict or control that phenomenon.
  17. Philosophy
    Broad, global explanation of teh world that gives meaning to the world of nursing & provides a framework within which thinking, knowing & doing occur
  18. Evidenced Based Practice
    Conscientious integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise adn patient values and needs in teh delivery of quality, cost-effective healthcare.
  19. Description
    Invloves identifying & understaning the nature & attributes of nursing phenomena & sometimes teh relationships among these phenomena. This is an outcome of research
  20. Explanation
    Achieved when research clarifies teh relationships among phenomena & identifies why certain evets occur.
  21. What research produces
    • Description
    • Explanation
    • Prediction
    • Control
  22. Prediction
    Ability to estimate the probability of a specific outcome in a given situatin that can be achieved thrugh research.
  23. Control
    Imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease teh possibility of error & increase the probability that the study's findings are an accurate relection of reality
  24. Scientific Method
    Incorporates all procedure that scientists have used, currently use or may use in the future to pursue knowledge, such as quantitative, qualatative, outcome and intervention research.
  25. Quantitative Reserach Definition
    Formal, objective, systematic study process to describe & test relationships & to examine cause & effect interactions among variables.
  26. Quantitiative Research Examples
    • Descriptive
    • Correlation
    • Quasi-Experimental
    • Experimental
  27. Logical Positivism
    Branch of philosophy that operates on strict rules of logic, truth, laws, axioms & predictions. Quantitative reseach emerged from logical positivism
  28. Generalization
    Extends the implication of the findings from the sample that was studied to the larger population  or from teh situation studied to a alarger situation
  29. Descriptive Research
    Provides an accurate portrayal or account of the characteristics of a particular individual, event or group in real-life situations for the purpose of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, & catagorizing information.
  30. Correlational Research
    Systematic Investigation of relationships between two or more variables to explain the type of (postive or negative) & strength of relationships in the worlds & niot to examine cause & effect
  31. Quasi-Experimental Research
    Type of quantitative research conducted to explain relationships, clarify why certain events happen & examine causality between selected independent & dependent variables.
  32. Experimental Research
    Objective, systematic, controlled investigation to examine probability & causaility among selected independent & dependent variables for the  purpose of predicting & controlling phenomena
  33. Phenomenological Research
    Inductive, descriptive qualitative methodolgy developed from phenomenolgical philosophy for purpose of describing experiences as they are lived by the study participants.
  34. Ethnographic Research
    Qualitative research methodolgoy developed within the discipline of anthropolgy for investigating cultures that involves collection description, & analysis of data to develop a thoery of cultural behavior.
  35. Historical Research
    Qualitative research method that includes a narrative description or analysis of events that occured in the remore or recent past.
  36. Philosophical Inquiry
    • Qualitative research method using intellectual analysis to clarify meanings, make values manifested, identify ethics, adn study the nature of knowledge
    • -foundational inquiry
    • -philosophical analysis
    • -ethical analysis
  37. Grounded- Theory Research
    Qualitative, inductive research technique based on symbolic interaction theory that is conducted to discover what problems exist in a social scene & the processes persons use to handle them. The research process involves formulation testing & redevelopment of propositions until a theory is developed.
  38. Foundational Inquiry
    Qualitative research mehtod used to examine the foundations for a science, such as studies that provide analysis of teh structure of a science & the process of thinking about & valuing certain phenomena held in common by the science. Debates related to quantitaive & qualitative research mehtods emerged from foundational inquiry
  39. Philosophical analysis
    Qualitative research method that uses concepts or linquistic analysis to examine meaning & develop theories of meaning.
  40. Ethical Inquiry
    Intellectual analysis of ethical problems related to obligation, rights, duty, right v. wrong, conscience, justice, choice, intention & responsibility to obain desriable, rational ends
  41. Critical-Social Theory
    Qualitative research methodology guided by critical social theory, the researcher seeks to understand how people communicate & develop symbolic meaing in a society.
  42. Best Research Evidence
    The strongest empirical knowledge avaliable that is generated from the synthesis of quality study findings to address a practice problem
  43. Systematic Review
    Structreud, comprehensive sythesis of quantitative studies in a particular healthcare area to determine the best research evidence avaliable for expert clinicians to use to promote an EBP
  44. Meta-analysis
    Involves teh statistical pooling of the results from several previous studies into a single quantitative analysis that provides one of the highest levels of evidence for an interventions efficacy
  45. Integrative Review of Research
    Conducted to identify, analyze & syntheize the results from independent studies to determine the current knowledge in a particular area.
  46. Basic (pure) Research
    Scientific investigations for the pursuit of knowledge for knowledges sake or for the pleasure of learning and finding truth
  47. Applied (practical) Research
    Scientific investigations conducted to generate knowledge that will directly influence or improve practice
  48. Rigor
    Striving for excellence in research through the use of discipline, scrupulous adherence to detail and strict accuracy
  49. Control
    Imposing of rules by the researcher to decrease the possiblity of error and increase teh probability that the study findings aer an accurate reflection of reality
  50. Design
    Blueprint for conducting a study that maximizes control over factor that could interfere with the validity of the findings
  51. Sampling
    Includes selcting groups of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study
  52. Natural settings
    Field settings or uncontrolled, real life settings where research is conducted, such as subjects homes, worksites and school
  53. Partially controlled setting
    Environment that the researcher manipulates or modifies in some way when it isu sed as a setting for a study
  54. Highly controlled setting
    Artificially constructed environments that are developed for the sole purpose of conducting research, such as labratories, experimental centers and research medical units
  55. Hawthorne Effect
    Psychological response in which subjects change their behavior simply because they are subjects in a study, not because the research treatment
  56. Research Problem
    Area of concern where there is a gap in knowledge base needed for nursing practice. Research is conducted to generate essential knowledge to address the practice concern, with the ultimate goal of providing evidenced based nursing care.
  57. Research Purpose
    Concise, clear statement of the specific goal or aim of the study that is generated from the problem
  58. Review of relevant Literature
    Analysis & synthesis of research sources to generate a picture of what is known &  not known about a particualr situation or research problem
  59. Framework
    The abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides development of the study and enables teh researcher to link the findings tot he body of knowledge for nursing
  60. Concept
    Term that abstractly describes & names an object or phenomenon, thus provideing it with a seperate identity or meaning
  61. relational statement
    declares that a relationship or link of some kind (+ or -) exists between 2 or more concepts. Relational statements are also called propositions in theory and become teh foucs of testing in quantitiative research
  62. Theory
    Consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements & relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict of control that phenomenon
  63. Variables
    Qualiteis, properties or characteristics of persons, things, or situations that change or vary and are manipulated mearsued or controlled in research.
  64. Conceptual definition
    Provides a variable or concept with connotative meanings and is established thorugh concept analysis, concept derivation or concept synthesis
  65. Operational definition
    Description of how variables or concepts will be measured or manipulated in a study
  66. Assumptions
    Statements taken for granted or considered true even though they have not been scientifically tested
  67. Limitations
    Theorteical & methodological restrictions or weaknesses in a study that may decrease the generalizability of the findings
  68. Theoretical limitations
    Weaknesses in the study framework & conceptual & operational definitions that restrict abstract generalization of the findings
  69. Methodological Limitations
    Restrictions or weaknesses in the study design that limit the credibility of the findings & the population to which the finidngs can be generalized
  70. Population
    All elements (individuals, objects, events or substances) that meet the sample criteria for inclusion in a study; sometimes reffered to as a target population
  71. Sample
    Subset of teh population that is selected for study
  72. Measurements
    Process of assigning number to objects, events, or situations in accord with some rules
  73. Reliability
    Represents teh consistency of the meausure obtained
  74. Validity
    Measure of teh truth or accuracy of a claim; an important concern throughout the research process
  75. Data collection
    Precise, systematic gathering of information relevant to the research purpose or the specific objectives, questions or hypotheses of a study.
  76. Pilot Study
    Smaller version of a proposed study conducted to develop or refine teh methodolgy such as the treatment, instruments or data collection process
  77. Data Analysis
    conducted to reduce, organize & give meaning to data
  78. Findings
    translated and interpreted results from a study
  79. Conclusions
    Synthesis and clarification of teh meaing of study findings
  80. Gestalt
    Organization of knowledge about a particular phenomenon into a cluster of linked ideas. The clusering & interrelatedness enhance the meaning of the ideans
  81. Sedimented view
    seeing things from the perspective of a specific timeframe of reference, worldview or theory that gives a sense of certainty, security and control.
  82. Ascendance to an open context
    Ability to see depth & complexity within the phenomenon examined and a greater capacity for insight than with the sedimented view. Requires deconstruction of sedimented view & reconstruction of other views
  83. Embodied
    heideggerian phenomenologists belief that the person is a self within a body thus the person is referred to as embodied
  84. Context
    The body, the world and the concerns unique to each person within which that person can be understood. Philosophical element of qualitative research.
  85. Being
    A term in phenomenological reserach where a person's experiences of teh world are unique to that person
  86. Symbolic meaning
    In qualitative data analysis, the meaning attached to particular ideas or clusters of data
  87. Descriptive mode
    Qualitative mode of nursing inquiry within grounded theory that provides rich detail and must precede all the other modes
  88. Discovey mode
    Qualitatiave mode of nursing inquiry within grounded theory that leads to the identification of patterns in life experiences of individuals & relates the patterns to one another to develop substantive theory
  89. Substantive Theory
    Theory of social process developed by the discovery mode to explain a particular social world
  90. Emergent fit mode
    Qualitative mode of nursing inquiry within grounded theory that is used to refine substantive theory after it has been developed
  91. Four qualitative modes of nursing inquiry within grounded theory are:
    • Descriptive mode
    • Discovery mode
    • Emergent fit mode
    • Intervention mode
  92. Intervention mode
    Qualitative mode of nursing inquiry within grounded theory that is used to test the relationship in the substantive theory developed as part of teh study.
  93. Ethnoscientific
    Type of ethnograpich research that focuses on the ideas, beliefs & knowledge that a group holds that are expressed in language; may address aspects such as symbolic referents, the network of social relations, and the beliefs reflected in social and political instituition.
  94. Ethnonursing research
    Emerged from Leininger's theory of transcultural nursing & focuses mainly on observing & documenting interactions with people to determine how daily life conditions adn patterns are influencing human care, health and nursing care practices.
  95. Cognitive anthropology
    New approach in ethnograpic research where culture is viewed as an adaptive system that is in the minds of teh people and is experssed in teh languqge or semantic system  of the group
  96. Historiography
    The research methodology used for conducting historical research
  97. Philosophical Inquiry
    • Qualitiative research method using intellectual analysis to clarify meanings, make values manifested, identify ethics and study teh nature of knowledge
    • -foundational inquiry
    • -philosophical analysis
    • -ehtical analysis
  98. Participatory research
    Stratefy that includs representatives from all groups that will be affected by the change as collaborators. The strategy facilitates a broad base of support for new interventions for the target populations, the professional community adn the general public
  99. Feminist research
    Research methodology thought to have emerged from critical social theory & is focused on women's experiences & the validity of womens perception as the "truth" for them.
  100. Bayesian Calculations
    • Inference
    • An inference method radically different from the classical frequentist approach which takes into account the prior probability for an event
  101. Significant
    The significance level of an hypothesis test ist he chance that the test erroneously rejects the null hypothesis when the null hypothesisis true
  102. Regression to the mean
    When you select individuals because some measurement is particularily high, a lter measurement is likely to be lower
  103. Power
    Refer to a hypothesis test. The power of a test against a specfic alternatice hypothesis is the chance that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis whent he alternative hypothesis is true
  104. Hypothesis
    • Null- in hypothesis testing, the hypothesis we wish to falsify on the basis of the data. Typically that something is not present, that there is no effect or that there is no difference between control and treatment.
    • Alternative- hypothesis compared to null. usually states that there is an effect
  105. Model
    A mathmatical description of a simplified view of the world. Consist of both a general description and parameters
  106. Variance
    The variance of a list is the square of the standard deciation of the list.
  107. Residual
    The difference between a datum & the value predicted for it by a model. can be + or -
  108. Independent
    • Two events a & b are statistically independent if the chance they both happen simultaneously is the product of the chances that each occurs individually
    • P(AB) = P (A) P (B)
  109. Sample
    a collection of units from a population
  110. Population
    A collection of units being studied. Units can be people, places, objects, epoch, durgs, procedues ect. Much o f statistics is about estimating numerical properties of an entire population from a random sample of units from population
  111. Parameter
    A numerical property of a population, such as its mean
  112. Probability
    The probability of an event is a number between 0-100%. The meaning of probability is the subject of theories of probability, which differ in their interpretation. Any rule for assigning probability to events has to satisfy teh axioms of probability
  113. Statistics
    A number that can be computed from data, involving no unknown parameters
  114. Confidence Interval
    A (CI) for a parameter is a random interval constructed from data in such a way that the probability that the interval contains the true value of teh parameter can be specified before the data are collected.
  115. Margins of Error
    A measuer of the uncertainty in an estimate of a parameter, unfortunately not everyone agrees what this should mean.
  116. Confidence Level
    A confidence level of a CI is the chance that the interval will result once data are collected will contain the corresponding parameter
  117. Poisson Distribution
    a discrete probability distribution that depends on one parameter