What are the Western bordering countries of Russia? FELL PUB
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine.
What are the Southern Boarders of Russia? CAK-MNG
North Korea, China, Mongolia, and the former Republics of Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan.
What percent of Russia is suitable for farming?
About 7 percent.
Around what rivers and time period do Archaeologicalist say Slavic tribes settled in Russia?
Vistula, Dniester, Dnieper, and Don Rivers by 800 B.C.E.
What was the earliest group to settle the Russian territories?
The Cimmerians, a Thracian tribe who controlled the region from 1000 BCE till 700 BCE.
From what time period did the Cimmerians have control over Russia?
1000 BCE to 700 BCE.
What group took over after the Cimmerians?
The Scythians, an Iranian people around 700 BCE.
Who took control of Russia after the Scythians?
The Sarmatians, a Central Asian people, around 200 BCE.
What year did the Sarmatians take control of Russia?
Around 200 BCE.
How many years did teh Sarmatians have control over Russia?
About 400 years.
Who took control from the Sarmatians?
The Germanic Goths from the north-west in 200 CE, later splitting into eastern Ostrogoths and western Visigoths.
How did the Germanic goths split Russia?
Eastern Ostrogoths, Western Visigoths.
Who and when forced the Germanic Goths out of Russian control?
In 370 the Huns lead by Atilla and advanced west to the Rhine until they were defeated by the Franks in 451.
In what year and who forced the Huns back?
The Franks near the Rhine river in 451.
In what year did Atilla die?
After the decline of the Huns who gained iunfluence in the area?
What group subjected the Slavs?
The Avars, a a nomadic Asiatic tribe around 560.
And who forced out the Avars?
Nearly 100 years later the Turkic Khazars from the Caspean Sea.
What was the last major group to enter the Russian region?
A Scandavian tribe of Norse people known as the Varangians around 800.
What did the Varangians do to expand their influence on the area?
Connection of a trade route between teh Baltic and Black Seas.
What was The Russian PrimaryChronicle?
It is a 12th century document.
For what three reasons is the Primary Chronicle brought into question?
1st. Researchers have found no evidence of a tribe or group of people from Scandavia, 2nd. The only documentation of a group of people named Rus comes from the Byzanntium and teh Orient, suggesting Asia, 3rd. It was a document written nearly 200 years after the events.
What are the 3 basic periods of time of teh Kievan city-state?
1. Gradual development in the early years (882 to 970s) 2. The zenith of cultural, political, and economic development in the eleventh century (970s to 1054) 3. It's weakening and demise to the Mongols in 1240
Whowas the first of Kievs princes?
yWhat products dominated the early Kievan market?
furs, wax, honey, flax, hemp, hops, sheepskin, and other animal hides.
By the 970s, Keivan Rus became a strong political and economic force, what city rose to the cetner of the power?
Which two events distinguished how strong Novgorod became?
1st. Prince became a hired position in 1136, 2nd. Novgorod was free of religous governance and named their own archbishop in 1156
In what year did Novgorod make prince a hired postion?
What year did Novgorod seat their own Archbishop?
What event cause Keivan Rus to consolidate it's regional power?
Military campaigns led by Prince Sviatoslav.
What characterized the Keivan Rus middle period?
Political and Economic stability.
What was the signifigance of Prince Vladamir (980-1015)?
Responsible for the introduction of Orthodox Christianity in 988.
For what reasons was Orthodoxy chosen?
Prohibition of bloods fueds, justification of the devine right of kings, and affinity of Constantinople as a crosssroads.
What year was Orthodox Christianty adopted in Russian culture?
What two Saints contributed to the development of the Russian written language?
Cyril and Methodius
What position, established because of Orthodoxy, came to rival Princes in power and wealth
Who was Jaroslav the Wise (1019-1054)?
The second noteworthy Prince of the Keivan Rus middle period, he eliminated the Pecheneg threat which secured the southeastern border, development of the first Russian legal code, he also relocated the seat of the metropolitan to Keiv
What is the 'metropolitan'?
the leader of the Russian Orthodox Chruch
What did Jaroslav do to contribute to the decline of Keivan Rus?
He split the state into sectors, which decentralized power and led to fraction
What is the practice of distributing appanges(Udels)?
When royalty grant estates, titles, offices, and power.
What circumstances woudld appanges be applied?
To Princes who wouldn't recieve anythign under the rights of Primogeniture
Who were Boyars?
Wealthy, landed elite who held influence over the Princes of early Russia
Under who's leadership were the Mongols able to take control of Russian territories?
Batu Khan, grandosn of Ghengis Khan
Which Russian prince refused to pledge alligance to Batu Khan?
Prince Yuri II
What cities did the Mongols level before reaching Keiv in 1240?
Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, and Vladmir-Suzdal
What was the Mogolan philosophy of ruling and area?
To have the locals pledge alligance and provide them with tribute and skille workers. In retrun, they were left to be, but still under control of the Mongols
How was it that Novgorod remain fluent in Russia?
Prince Alexander Nevsky stayed loyal to the Mongols
What title was granted to Princes who fell into favor of the Mongols?
What is the Tatar "'Yoke"?
The idea that the impact the Mongols had on Russia was negative in 5 points. 1. Political, Economic, and Social development was stunted. 2. Trade with foreign markets was cut off. 3. Lack of contact purged Russia from experiencing the Renaissance, a Reform, or Elightenment. 4. Authoritarian political culture. 5. Devaluation of women
What are the counter claims to Tatar Yoke?
1st. Mogols did not cut Russia off from the West or trade. 2nd. Russia aligned itself to the Byzantium, not west, so they would have not aligned with western events. 3rd. Mongols only worried about resources, not culture.
What is a resonable assesment for Mongolian rule?
1st.Ended the first Russian political state, with Kiev as it's center. 2nd With destruction of Kiev, and incentive to console wealth, Moscow rose. 3rd Mongols rule drained Russia of resources, and crippled working class. 4th Class division paved the way for fuedal institutions.
What is the Russian word for "Trademark" or "Stamps"?
What is the Russian word for "Market"?
What is the Russian word for "Coin" or "Money"?
Denga or Dengi
what is the Russian word for "Treasury"?
What is the Russian word for "Road"?
Under which leader was Moscow rebuilt?
Daniel, son of Alexander of Nevsky
Under which leader did Moscow rise to the central of power?
In which circumstance, was the weaking power of the Mongols is Russia visible?
The decendant of Genghis Khan, Kasimov, agreed to princdom within the Russian state
What gave Ivan III (Ivan the Great) considerable experience in government?
As primary advisor for his father
How Ivan able to unify Russia?
Applying political skills and money
Which pincipality was important for Moscow to gain control of, leading to two military campaings?
1471 campaign against Novgorod, they were defeated, after they refused to pledge loyalty another campaign was launched in 1478
After tripling the size of Russia, what title did Ivan assume in 1493?
Soverign of All Russia in 1493
When did Moscow become the regligous capital of Russia?
1326, after the metropolitan was oved tot he city.
What were the two conflicts between church and state, led by Monk Nil Sorsky?
In 1488 Sorsky saught to relax church doctrine. Second, he joined a group called the non-possessors who drew upon stricted textual interpretation to argue the church shouldn't hold large amount of land and wealth.
what was the response of Nil Sorsky's two incidents with the Orthodox Church?
With the 1488 push to relax doctrine, the church issued a position to burn all heritics at the stake, putting an end to that. With his second conflict, even with the backing of wealth landowners and aristocrats, the Church aligns itself with teh "Possessors" tightening the relationship with chruch and state.
At what age did Ivan IV accend too the thrown?
At the age of 3 in 1533
Since Ivan IV was too young to rule, his mother was made regent. But after her death in 1538, who was made to lead in place of the young Ivan?
The carde of Boyars with close tiies to the Muscovite crown
How did the Boyars take advantage of ruling in place of Ivan teh Terrible?
They used the position to promote their well being and punish political enemies
What was the first indication of Ivan IV's independence from his expectations?
His decision to marry Anastasia Romanova
What was the Council of Hundred Chapters?
A body established by Ivan IV to regulate the church prohibiting them from acquiring land or territory without the tsars permission
Ivan the Terrible launched campaigns against which countries to the east of Russia?
Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia
Which coutry did Ivan IV launch an attack against to gain acess to Baltic water ports?
Modern day Estonia adn Latvia
After 25 years of warfare, the Livonians held off Ivan with the help of which countries?
Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Poland, and Lithuania
What was the reaction after the death of Ivan IV wife Anastasia?
Ivan launched a campaign of indiscrimination and violence and terror known as the Oprichnina
What was teh Oprichnina?
A seperate governing body within the Russian state which acted like a secret police
Because Tsar Theodore was dumb, who essentially ran Russia?
Boris Godunov, a regent of Tartar descent
How was Boris Godunov able to friend Tsar Theodore?
When Theodore married his sister, he used the relationship to elimate his political rivals - and importantly, he convinced the patriarch of constantinople to make a second patriarch in Russia, himself
Who was the first Romanov Tsar and what was he assoiated with ?
Michael, and the Time of Troubles 1598-1613 elected by the Zemskii Sobor, replacing Boris Godunov
What characterizes the Time of Troubles?
famine, economic crisis, peasant flight, succession crisis, and invasion
What was the period of the Time of Troubles?
During the Time of Troubles, what fraction of Russian population was wiped out?
Which country invaded Russia in 1603 to install a flase Dimitrii as Tsar?
What was the Zemskii Sobor?
Early Russian parliment meant to establish a ruler during the Time of Troubles after dispelling Poland and Sweden. They elected, Micahel Romanov