Biology Lab Topic #1 - Kingdom Plantae
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Name 6 general characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
- 1. Eukaryotic
- 3.Photosynthetic autotrophs
- 4.Use Chlorophylls a & b and carotenoids
- 5.Stores glucose as starch
- 6.Cell walls are composed of glucose
Name 5 adaptations made by plants to land.
- 1.Retain water
- 2.Overcome gravity
- 3.Transport sperm
- 4.Keep zygote moist
- 5.Transport water and photosynthetic products
Name the 5 most notable features of bryophytes.
- 1.Gametophyte dominant
- 2.No true roots, stems, or leaves.
- 3.Rhizoids limit their size
- 4.Do not contain lignin(for support)
- 5.Do not have a cuticle
Name the 3 phyla of "bryophytes".
Bryophyta(mosses), Hepatophyta(liverworts), Anthocerophyta(hornworts)
Name 3 noteworthy characteristics of bryophyta.
- 1.They are commonly called the mosses
- 2.They have a "stem like" structure.
Name 4 noteworthy characteristics of Hepatophyta that differentiate them from other bryophytes
- 1. Most likely first land plants.
- 2.Flattened, leaf like appearance
- 3.Have a distinct top and bottom
- 4.Can reproduce asexually using gemmae
What is the most noteworthy characteristic of Anthocerophyta?
Its close relationship to land plants.
What is the common name for vascular plants?
Name the two phyla of seedless tracheophytes
Lycophyta and Pterophyta
Name 5 characteristics unique to Lycophyta
- 1. Commonly called club moss.
- 2.Has true leaves
- 3.Gametophyte relies on symbiotic fungi
- 4. Epiphytic
using another structure(often a plant) for support
Horizontal stem from which roots come in Lycophyta
What creatures are included in the phylum Pterophyta?
Ferns, Whisk ferns, and Horse Tails
Name 6 unique characteristics of Pterophyta
- 1.Has true roots, leaves, and stems.
- 3.Fronds(babies are fiddleheads)
- 4.All parts contain vascular tissue; tracheids, but no vessel elements.
- 5.Sori on bottom of fronds for spores
- 6.Gametophyte is free living
Name 2 unique characteristics of Vascular Seed Bearing plants
- 1.Gametophyte reduced and dependent on sporophyte.
- 2.Heterosporous(mega and microspores)
Name the 4 phyla of gymnosperms.
Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, and Gnetophyta.
Name 3 characteristics of Coniferophyta
- 1. Include pines, firs, cedars, and spruce
- 2.Live in cooler climates
- 3.Are woody and bear cones
- 4.Leaves modified
- 5.Has soft wood
Name 2 characteristics of Cycadophyta
- 1.Referred to as cycads.
- 2.Resemble palms, but are not
Name 3 characteristics of Ginkgophyta
- 1.Has one living member(biloba)
- 2.Called maidenhair tree
- 3.Deciduous(unlike most gymnosperms)
Name 3 facts about Gnetophyta
- 1.Commonly called gnetophytes
- 2.Includes Ephedra
- 3.Species Welwitschia has some of the largest known leaves of any plant.
What phylum contains all angiosperms?
Name 6 characteristics of Angiosperms
- 1.Flowering plants
- 2.Monocots and Dicots
- 3.Double Fertilization
- 4.Produces Endosperm
- 5.Xylem has vessel elements
- 6.Some are: autotrophic, parasitic, and carnivorous
Term for all sepals
Term for all petals
Starting at the release of spores, moss life cycle
- 1.Spore release
- 2.Grows to male and female gametophytes
- 3.Male releases sperm from antheridium
- 4.Sperm reaches female archegonium
- 5.Egg is fertilized and remains in archegonium.
- 6.Sporophyte parasitizes the gametophyte; meiosis occurs here in the sporophyte.
- Back to 1
Starting at the release of spores, fern life cycle
- 1.Spores release
- 2.Spores develope into bisexual gametophyte
- 3.Gametophyte releases sperm, which fertilize the egg of another gametophyte
- 4.Sporophyte developes from fertilized egg on gametophyte.
- 5.Developed sporophyte stores spores in sori, where meiosis takes place.
Starting at the mature sporophyte, pine life cycle.
- 1.Mature sporophyte has female(large) and male(small) cones
- 2.At pollination, megasporocyte undergoes meiosis; one egg survives.
- 3.Pollen fertilizes the egg
- 4.Embryo in little propeller seeds
- 5.Grows into small sporophyte
Starting at the flower, Anthophyta life cycle
- 1.Meiosis occurs in both anther and ovary to create gametes
- 2.Pollen produces 2 sperm.
- 3.Pollen grains carried to stigma on another plant
- 4.Pollen tube created down Style to reach ovary
- 5.Egg is fertilized along with the other two female cells to produce endosperm
- 6.Seed grows into sporophyte with flower.
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