411 Chapter 1

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411 Chapter 1
2012-08-31 02:20:54
Basic issues study development

Basic issues in the study of development
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  1. Developmental Science
    The study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotions, and social relationships.
  2. Norms
    Average ages at which developmental events happen.
  3. Behaviorism
    The theoretical view that defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences.
  4. Maturation
    Sequential patterns of change that are governed by instructions contained in the genetic code and shared by all members of a species.
  5. Critical Period
    Any time period during development when an organism is especially responsive to and learns from a specfic type of stimulation. The same stimulation at other points in development has little or no effect.
  6. Sensitive Period
    A period during which particular experiences can best contribute to proper development. It is similar to a critical period, but the effects of deprivation during a sensitive period are not as severe as during a critical period. 
  7. Behavior Genetics
    The study of the genetic contributions to behavior or traits such as intelligence or personality.
  8. Internal Model of Experience
    A theoretical concept emphasizing that each child creates a set of core ideas or assumptions about the world, the self, and relationships with others through which all subsequent experience is filtered. 
  9. Normative Age-graded Changes
    Changes that are common to every member of a species.
  10. Normative History-graded Changes
    Changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period.
  11. Cohort
    A group of individuals who share the same historical experiences at the same times in their lives.
  12. Nonnormative Changes
    (Individual Differences)
    Changes that result from unique, unshared events.
  13. Developmental Theories
    Sets of statements that propose general principles of development.
  14. Psychoanalytic Theories
    Developmental theories based on the  assumption that age-related change results from maturationally determined conflicts between internal drives and society's demands.
  15. Libido
    The term used by Freud to describe the basic, unconscious, instinctual sexual energy in each individual.
  16. Id
    In Freudian theory, the inborn, primitive portion of the personality, the storehouse of libido, the basic energy that continually pushes for immediate gratification.
  17. Ego
    In Freudian theory, the portion of the personality that organizes, plans, and keeps the person in touch with reality. Language and thought are both ego functions.
  18. Superego
    In Freudian theory, the "conscience" part of personality, which contains parental and societal values and attitudes incorporated during childhood.
  19. Psychosexual Stages
    The stages of personality development suggested by Freud: the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages.
  20. Psychosocial Stages
    The stages of personality development suggested by Erikson, involving basic trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity.
  21. Cognitive-Developmental Theories
    Developmental theories that emphasize children's actions on the environment and suggest that age-related changes in reasoning precede and explain changes in other domains.
  22. Scaffolding
    The term used by Bruner to describe the process by which a teacher (or parent, older child, or other person in the role of teacher) structures a learning encounter with a child, so as to lead the child from step to step- a process consistent with Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development.
  23. Zone of Proximal Development
    In Vygotsky's theory, the range of tasks that are slightly too difficult for a child to do alone but that can be accomplished successfully with guidance from an adult or more experienced child.
  24. Information-processing Theories
    A set of theories based on the idea that humans process information in ways that are similar to those used in computer.
  25. Learning Theories
    Psychological theories that explain development in terms of accumulated learning experiences.
  26. Classical Conditioning
    One of three major types of learning. An automatic, or unconditional response such as an emotion or a reflex comes to be triggered by a new cue, called the conditional stimulus, after having been paired several times with that stimulus.
  27. Operant Conditioning
    The type of learning in which tht probability of a person's performing some behavior is increased or decreased because of the consequences it produces.
  28. Positive Reinforcement
    The process of strengthening a behavior by the presentation of some pleasurable or positive stimulus.
  29. Negative Reinforcement
    The process of strengthening a behavior by the removal or cessation of an unpleasant stimulus.
  30. Punishment
    The removal of a desirable stimulus or the administration of an unpleasant consequence after some undesired behavior in order to stop the behavior.
  31. Eclecticism
    The use of multiple theoretical perspectives to explain and study human development.
  32. Hypothesis
    A testable prediction based on a theory.
  33. Cross-sectional Design
    A form of research study in which samples of participants from several different age groups are studied at the same time.
  34. Longitudinal Design
    A form of research study in which the same participants are observed or assessed repeatedly over a period of months or years.
  35. Sequential Design
    A form of research study that combines Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Designs in some ways.
  36. Case Studies
    In-depth studies of individuals.
  37. Naturalistic Observation
    A research method in which participants are observed in their normal environments.
  38. Correlation
    A statistic used to describe the strength of a relationship between two variables. It can range from -1.00 to +1.00. The closer it is to -1.00 to +1.00, the stronger the relationship being described.
  39. Experiment
    A research method for testing a causal hypothesis, in which participants are assigned randomly to experimental and contol groups and the experimental group is then provided with a particular experience that is expected to alter behavior in some fashion.
  40. Experimental Group
    A group of participants in an experiment who receive a particular treatment intended to produce some specific effect.
  41. Control Group
    A group of participants in an experiment who receive either no special treatment or some neutral treatment.
  42. Independent Variable
    A condition or event that an experimenter varies in some systematic way in order to observe the impact of that variation on participants' behavior.
  43. Dependent Variable
    The variable in an experiment that is expected to show the impact of manipulations of the independent variable; also called the outcome variable.
  44. Cross-Cultural Research
    Any study that involves comparisons of different cultures or contexts.