Chapter 2

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aruiz
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167747
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Chapter 2
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2012-08-29 23:30:34
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Psych
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Psych Chapter 2
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  1. Neuron
    The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that reveives and sends messages within that system.
  2. Dendrites
    Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons.
  3. Soma
    The cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell.
  4. Axon
    Tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells.
  5. Myelin
    Fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse.
  6. Nerves
    Bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body.
  7. Glial Cells
    Grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to eurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and , during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons.
  8. Reuptake
    Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.
  9. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    Machine designed to record the brain-wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain.
  10. Computed Tomography (CT)
    Brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain.
  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain.
  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    Brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity.
  13. Medulla
    The first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.
  14. Pons
    The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal.
  15. Reticular Formation (RF)
    An area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for selective attention.
  16. Cerebellum
    Part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, finemotor movement.
  17. The Hindbrain
    • Medulla
    • Pons
    • Reticular Formation
    • Cerebellum
  18. Structures under the cortex
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Hippocampus
    • Amygdala
  19. Left Hemisphere
    • Controls the right hand
    • Spoken Language
    • Written Language
    • Mathematical Calculations
    • Logical thought processes
    • Analysis of detail
    • Reading
  20. Right Hemisphere
    • Controls the left hand
    • Nonverbal
    • Visual-spatial perception
    • Music and artistic processing
    • Emotional thought and recognition
    • Processes the whole
    • Pattern recognition
    • Facial recognition
  21. Pituitary Gland
    Gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland).
  22. Nervous System
    Central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord

    Peripheral nervous system: Transmits information to and from the central nervous system.
  23. Central nervous system
    Brain: Interprets and stores information and sends orders to muscles, glands and organs

    Spinal Cord: Pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system
  24. Peripheral nervous system
    Autonomic nervous system: Automatically regulates glands, internal organs and blood vessels, pupil dilation, digestion, and blood pressure

    Somatic nervous system: Carries sensory information and controls movement of the skeletal muscles
  25. Autonomic nervous system
    Parasympathetic division: Maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy

    Sympathetic division: Prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress
  26. Cerebral Hemispheres
    • The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain.
    • Left/ Right hemisphere
  27. Corpus Callosum
    Thich band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemishpheres.
  28. Occipital lobe
    Section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain.
  29. Parietal Lobes
    Sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations.
  30. Somatosensory Cortex
    Area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste.
  31. Temporal Lobes
    Areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible fro the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
  32. Frontal Lobes
    Areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech.
  33. Motor Cortex
    Section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system.
  34. Association areas
    Areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing.
  35. Cerebrum
    The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them.
  36. Endocrine glands
    Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

    • Pituitary gland
    • Pineal gland
    • Thyroid gland
    • Pancreas
    • GonadsĀ 
    • Adrenal glands
  37. Hormones
    Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands.
  38. Cortex
    • Frontal Lobes
    • Temporal LobesĀ 
    • Parietal Lobes
    • Occipital Lobes
  39. The association areas of the cortex
    Broca's area: found in left frontal lobe; devoted to speech production; damage to this area can result in Broca's aphasia

    Wernicke's area: found in the left temporal lobe; plays a role in understanding the meaning of words

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