Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
2012-08-28 03:26:41

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  1. atoms
    the smallest unit of matter. In greek "indivisible or uncuttable"
  2. subatomic particles
    particles smaller than a atome
  3. cathode rays
    radiation that traveled from negative electrode to the positve electrode
  4. radioactivity
    spontaneous emission of radiation
  5. nucleus
    model in which most of the mas of each atom and all of its positive charge reside in a very small, extremely dense region
  6. proton
    subatomic particle. positively charge
  7. neutron
    subatomic particle. no charge
  8. electron
    subatomic particle. negatively charge
  9. electronic charge
    the quantity 1.602 * 10 ** -19
  10. atomic mass unit
    amu. 1.66054 * 10 ** -24
  11. angstrom
    • 1* 10 ** -10
    • measurement to determine diamter of atom
  12. atomic number
    number of protons in an atom of any particular element
  13. mass number
    number of protons plus neutrons. mass of atom
  14. atomic weight
    average atomic mass
  15. periods
    horizontal rows of the periodic table
  16. groups
    verticle columns of periodic table
  17. metallic elements 
    elements with characteristics such as luster and high electrical and heat conductivity. Solid at room temperature (not Mercury)
  18. nonmetallic elements (metalloids)
    elements that vary in state at room temperature. Different from metals in physical properties and appearance. Some nonmetals (metalloids) have characteristics of metals and non metals
  19. chemical formula
    How molecules are written
  20. diatomic molecule
    molecule made up of two of the same element
  21. molecular compounds
    molecules made up of two or more of different molecules
  22. molecular formula
    chemical formulas that indicate the actual numbers of atoms in a molecule
  23. empirical formula
    chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule
  24. ion
    a charged particfle where electrons are removed from or added to an atom
  25. cation
    ion with a positive charge
  26. anion
    ion that is negatively charged
  27. polyatomic ion
    atoms joined into molecules that have a positve or negative charge
  28. ionic compound
    compound made up of cations and anions
  29. chemical nomenclature
    system used in naming sunbstances
  30. oxyanions
    polyatomic anions containing oxygen have names ending in either ate or ite
  31. organic chemistry
    compound of carbon
  32. hydrocarbons
    compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen
  33. alkanes
    simplest class of hydrocarbons where each varbon is bonded to four other atoms
  34. alcohol
    when one of more hydrogen atom in an alkane is replaced with functional groups
  35. isomers
    compounds with the same molecular formula but different arragnements of atoms