Govt I

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krihn
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167828
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Govt I
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2012-08-31 18:59:59
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ACC 2305
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Govt 2305 Exam 1
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  1. Democracy
    Democracy – A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public preferences.
  2. Elitism
    Elitism – A theory of American government contending that an upper-class elite holds the power and makes policy, regardless of the formal governmental organization.
  3. Government
    Government – The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society.
  4. Hyperpluralism
    Hyperpluralism – A theory of American democracy contending that groups are so strong that government, which gives in to the many different groups, is thereby weakened.
  5. Linkage Institutions
    Linkage Institutions – The political channels through with people’s concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the US, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
  6. Majority Rule
    Majority Rule – A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority’s desire be respected.

     
  7. Minority Rights
    Minority Rights – A principle of that guarantees rights to those that do not belong to majorities.

     
  8. Pluralism
    Pluralism – A theory of American democracy emphasizing that the policymaking process is very open to the participation of all groups shared interests, with no single group usually dominating. Pluralists tend to believe that, as a result, public interest generally prevails.
  9. Policy Agenda
    Policy Agenda – The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people involves in politics at a point in time.
  10. Policy Gridlock
    Policy Gridlock – A condition that occurs when interests conflict and no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy, so nothing gets done.
  11. Policy Impacts
    Policy Impacts – The effects a policy has on people and problems. Impacts are analyzed to see how well a policy has met its goal and at what cost.
  12. Policymaking Institutions
    Policymaking Institutions – The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The US Constitution established 3 policymaking institutions – Congress, the president, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a 4th policymaking institution.
  13. Policymaking System
    Policymaking System – The process by which policy comes into being and evolves. People’s interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. These issues shape policy, which in turn impacts people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns.
  14. Political Culture
    Political Culture – An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
  15. Political Issue
    Political Issue – An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it.
  16. Politics
    Politics – The process that determines who we select as our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
  17. Public Goods
    Public Goods – Goods such as clean air and clean water that everyone must share.
  18. Public Policy
    Public Policy – A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken in regard to some problem.
  19. Representation
    Representation – A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers.
  20. Anti-Federalists
    Anti-Federalists -  Opponents of the US Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
  21. Articles of Confederation
    Articles of Confederation – The first constitution of the United States adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
  22. Bill of Rights
    Bill of Rights – The first 10 amendments to the US Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants’ rights.
  23. Checks & Balances
    Checks & Balances – Features of the Constitution that limit government’s power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another’s activities.
  24. Connecticut Compromise
    Connecticut Compromise – The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives in which representation is based on a state’s share of the US population; and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives.
  25. Consent of the Governed
    Consent of the Governed – The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
  26. Constitution
    Constitution – A nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. Constitutions can be either written or unwritten.
  27. Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of Independence – The documents approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence. 
  28. Equal Rights Amendment
    Equal Rights Amendment – A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 stating that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.” The amendment failed to acquire the  necessary support from ¾ of the state legislatures.
  29. Factions
    Factions – Parties or interest groups that James Madison saw as arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth and attacked as having the potential to cause instability in government.
  30. Federalist Papers
    Federalist Papers – A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the Constitution in detail.
  31. Federalists
    Federalists – Supports of the US Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
  32. Judicial Review
    Judicial Review – The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and, by implication, the executive are in accord with the US Constitution. Judicial review was established by Marbury v. Madison.
  33. Limited Government
    Limited Government – The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
  34. Natural Rights
    Natural Rights – Rights, inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke’s theories about government and was widely accepted among America’s Founders.
  35. New Jersey Plan
    New Jersey Plan – The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state’s population.
  36. Republic
    Republic – A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
  37. Separation of Powers
    Separation of Powers – A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government – executive, legislative, and judicial – to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions.
  38. Shays' Rebellion
    Shays’ Rebellion – A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings. 
  39. U.S. Constitution
    U.S. Constitution – The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structures of the US government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
  40. Three-Fifths Compromise
    Three-Fifths Compromise - a compromise between Southern and Northernstates reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
  41. Virginia Plan
    Virginia Plan - The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state’s share of the US population.
  42. Writ of Habeas Corpus
    Writ of Habeas Corpus – A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
  43. Marbury v. Madison 
    Marbury v. Madison (1803) – The 1803 case in which the Supreme Court asserted its right to determine the meaning of the US Constitution. The decision established the Court’s power of judicial review over acts of Congress.
  44. Block Grants
    Block Grants - Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
  45. Categorical Grants
    Categorical Grants - Federal grants that can only be used for specific purposes or "categories" of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
  46. Confederation
    Confederation - In a confederation, the national government is weak, and most or all power is in the hands of its components, such as the individual states.
  47. Cooperative Federalism
    Cooperative Federalism - A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government.
  48. Crosscutting Requirements
    Crosscutting Requirements - Those that are required by any entity that receives federal monies - be they states, organizations, municipalities. One of the most common requirements is non-discrimination based on gender, race, religion, ethnicity, etc. There are no exceptions. These regulations cut across all programs touched by the federal government.
  49. Crossover Sanctions
    Crossover Sanctions - Federal orders in which the national government pulls or threatens to pull funding from one state-relate expense because of an unrelated offense. Think of pulling funding from state road budgets because of high alcohol-related accidents.
  50. Devolution
    Devolution - Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
  51. Dual Federalism
    Dual Federalism - A system of governement in which both the states and the national governemtn remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
  52. Elastic Clause
    Elastic Clause - The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
  53. Eleventh Amendment
    Eleventh Amendment - Prohibits individual damage suits against state officials and protects state governments from being sued against their consent from private parties in federal or state courts or before federal administrative agencies.
  54. Enumerated Powers
    Enumerated Powers - Powers of the federal government that are specifically addresses in the Constitution, including, for Congress, the powers in Article I, Section 8, for example, to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
  55. Extradition
    Extradition - A legal process whereby a state surrenders a person charged with a crime to the state in which the crime is alleged to have occured.
  56. Federalism
    Federalism - A way or organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
  57. Fiscal Federalism
    Fiscal Federalism - The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
  58. Formula Grants
    Formula Grants - Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative legislation.
  59. Full Faith & Credit
    Full Faith & Credit - A clause in Article IV of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states.
  60. Implied Powers
    Implied Powers - Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution, in accordance to the statement in the Constitution that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
  61. Intergovernmental Relations
    Intergovernmental Relations - The workings of the federal system - the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments, including regulations, transfers of funds, and the sharing of information.
  62. Privileges & Immunities
    Privileges & Immunities - The provision of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of other states.
  63. Project Grant
    Project Grant - Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications.
  64. Supremacy Clause
    Supremacy Clause - The clause in Article VI of the Constitution that makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws as long as the national government is acting within its constituional limits.
  65. Tenth Amendment
    Tenth Amendment - The constitutional amendment stating "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
  66. Unitary Government
    Unitary Government - A way or organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are unitary governments.
  67. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
    Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) -A case in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constituion giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing veirtually every form of commercial activity.
  68. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) - The Supreme Court case that establised the supremacy of the national governement over state governments. The Court held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to those enumerated in the Constitution.
  69. Define government.
    Government is the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society. 
  70. Define politics. 
    Politics is the process that determine who we select as our governmental leaders and what polices these leaders pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
  71. Name in proper order the six steps of the policymaking system.
    The six steps of the policymaking system are 1) people 2) linkage institutions 3) policy agends 4) policymaking institutions 5) policy 6) people
  72. Name three of the five elements of the American creed, as theorized by Seymour Martin Lipset.
    Liberty, egalitarianism, individualism, laisses-faire, and populism.
  73. Define democracy.
    A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
  74. Name the five criteria, according to Robert Dahl, necessary to satisfy an ideal democratic process. 
    Equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the agenda, and inclusion.
  75. Name the three contemporary theories of American democracy. 
    Populism, hyperpopulism, & elitism.
  76. Define constitution.
    A nation's basic laws. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.
  77. Name the title of each of the seven articles of the U.S. Constitution.
    • The Legislature
    • The Executive
    • The Judicial
    • Interstate Relations
    • Amending the Constitution
    • Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
    • Ratifying the Constitution
  78. Declaration of Independence
    The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarched and declared their independence.
  79. Articles of Confederation
    The first constitution of the US, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. It established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
  80. US Constitution
    The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of US government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
  81. Name the three systems of government and the role of the central government in each.
    • Unitary - The central government holds primary authority and regultes the activities of the states.
    • Confederate - The central government has limited powers to coordinate state activities.
    • Federal - The central government shares power with the states.
  82. According to Article VI of the Constitution, the supremacy clause, what three items comprise the supreme law of the land?
    • The Constitution
    • Laws of the national government
    • Treaties
  83. Federalism
    A way of organizing a nation so that 2 or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
  84. What are enumerated and implied powers?
    Enumerated power ar those that are specifically addresses in the Constitution, while implied powers go beyond the enumerated in accordance with the systement in the Constitution that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
  85. Which two great constitutional principles were set forth in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)? 
    The supremacy of the national government over the states, and that the national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers.
  86. What does the elastic clause—the last paragraphs in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution--authorize Congress to do?
    It authorizes Congree to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
  87. According to the Constitution, what three obligations does each state have to every other state?
    • Full Faith & Credit
    • Extradition
    • Privileges and Immunities
  88. Name the three standard operating procedures for government programs under cooperative federalism.
    • Shared costs
    • Federal guidelines
    • Shared administration
  89. What is the cornerstone of the national government’s relations with state and local governments? 
    Fiscal Federalism
  90. What two fundamental questions about governing serve as themes throughout the textbook Government in America?
    The two questions that are themes of the book are How should we govern? and What should government do?
  91. Name the five functions performed by rational governments throughout the world.
    • Maintain a national defense
    • Provide public services
    • Preserve order
    • Socialize the young
    • Collect taxes.

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