The Scientific Method
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What are the three assumptions are sciences based upon?
- 1. Natural Causality
- 2. Uniformity in Time and Space
- 3. Common Perception
What is Natural Causality
The concept that every event in nature is has a natural cause. Approaching something scientifically means looking for cause and effect.
What is Uniformity in Space and Time?
Natural Laws are consistent across the universe regardless of when or where they occur.
What is Common Perception?
The mechanics of how people perceive an event through their senses does not vary, however the interpretation of the perception can vary widely from individual to individual.
What are the four steps of the Scientific Method
- 1. Observation
- 2. Formulate a research hypothesis
- 3. Experiment
- 4. Form a Conclusion
What constitutes Observation
Taking in information through one's senses either firsthand or through the review of another observer's findings. The observation must be repeatable.
- 1.derived from or guided by experience or experiment.
- 2.depending upon experience or observation alone, withoutusing scientific method or theory, especially as in medicine.
- 3.provable or verifiable by experience or experiment.
- Per Dictionary.com
What is a Hypothesis
A testable suggested explanation for the observed event
The test of the Hypothesis which is repeated several times to allow for a conclusion which may or may not support the original hypothesis.
The detemintation that is arrived at by taking into account the outcomes of the testing of the hypothesis through experimentation.
What are the three variables in Experimental Design?
- 1. The Independent Variable
- 2. The Dependent Variable
- 3. The Control Variables
What is the Independent Variable?
The Independent Variable is the variable that is being changed in the experiment to determine the effect on the dependent variable.
What is the Dependent Variable
It is the variable that is expected to change based upon the independent variable being changed. (The independent varible has an effect upon the dependent variable)
What are the control variables.
The control variables that are all held constant during the experiments as the independent variable changes.
What are controlled experiments?
Controlled experiements are conducted in controlled environments such as a lab. The experimenter has control over the variables and can alter one thing to see if there is an effect on the dependent variable.
What are natural experiments?
Experiments which are conducted in a natural environment. Often this means that the researcher has little control over the variables of the environment.
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