ANTH 101 CH 1-3

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Anonymous
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167883
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ANTH 101 CH 1-3
Updated:
2012-08-28 20:36:08
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Anthropology Culture Cultural
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What is Anthropology, Culture, Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology
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  1. Anthropology
    the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
  2. Holistic
    Encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture
  3. Culture
    Traditions and customs transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them 
  4. Society
    Organized life in groups
  5. Adaptation
    the process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses.
  6. Foraging
    hunting and gathering of nature's bounty
  7. Food Production
    an economy based on plant cultivation and/or animal domestication
  8. General Anthropology

    (AKA "Four-Field" Anthropolgy)
    anthropology as a whole:

    cultural, archaeological, biological, and linguistic anthropology
  9. Biocultural
    combining biological and cultural approaches to a given problem
  10. Cultural Anthropology
    the comparative, cross-cultural, study of human society and culture
  11. Ethnography
    fieldwork in a particular cultural setting
  12. Archaeological Anthropology
    the study of human behavior through material remains
  13. Ethnology
    the study of sociocultural differences and similarities
  14. Paleoecology
    the study of interrelations among living things in an environment from the past
  15. Excavating
    involves digging through a succession of levels at a particular site
  16. Human Ecology
    studies ecosystems that include people; focuses on the ways in which human use of nature influences and is influenced by social organization and cultural values
  17. Prehistory
    period of time before the invention of writing
  18. Biological (aka Physical) Anthropology
    the study of human biological variation in time and space
  19. Linguistic Anthropology
    the study of language and linguistic diversity in time, space, and society
  20. Sociolinguistics
    the study of language in society
  21. Paleoanthropology
    human evolution as revealed by the fossil record
  22. Science
    field of study that seeks reliable explanations, with reference to the material and physical world
  23. Psychological Anthropology
    studies coss-cultural variation in psychological traits
  24. Applied (aka Public) Anthropology
    using anthropology to solve contemporary problems
  25. Theory
    a set of ideas formulated to explain something
  26. Association
    an observed relationship between two or more variables
  27. Cultural Resource Management
    deciding what needs saving when entire archaeological sites cannot be saved
  28. The truth of a scientific statement is confirmed by ___ ___.
    repeated observations
  29. Hypothesis
    a suggested but as yet unverified explanation
  30. Explicandum
    dependent variable
  31. Law
    a general principle/relationship
  32. What most characterizes anthropology among disciplines that study humans?
    It is holistic and comparative
  33. What is the most critical element of cultural traditions?
    their transmission through learning rather than through biological inheritance
  34. Over time, how has human reliance on cultural means of adaptation changed?
    Humans have become increasingly more dependant on them
  35. ___ anthropology was largely shaped by early American anthropologists' interests in Native Americans.
    Four-field
  36. The study of nonhuman primates is of special interest to which subdiscipline of anthropology?
    biological anthroplogy
  37. The Scientific Method
    characterizes any anthropological endeavor that formulates research questions and gathers/uses systematic data to test hypotheses
  38. Anthropology is unique among other social sciences in its emphasis on both ___ and ___ perspectives.
    holistic and cross-cultural

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