Crisis intervention terms for test 1

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Crisis intervention terms for test 1
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2012-08-28 21:23:43
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Crisis intervention Test 1 terms
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  1. Acting Out
    acting out the desires that are forbidden by the Super ego and yet desired by the Id. We thus cope with the pressure to do what we believe is wrong by giving in to the desire. A person who is acting out desires may do it in spite of their conscience or may do it with relatively little thought. Thus the act may be being deliberately bad or may be thoughtless wrongdoing.
  2. Aim inhibition
    having desires and goals that we believe or realize that we are unable to achieve. In aim inhibition, we lower our sights, reducing our goals to something that we believe is actually more possible or realistic. Aim inhibition may well include elements of rationalization and displacement, although the prime force is the creation of achievable goals
  3. Attack
    'The best form of defense is attack' is a common saying and is also a common action, and when we feel threatened or attacked(even psychologically), we will attack back. When a person feels stressed insome way, they may lash out at whoever is in the way, whether the other personis a real cause or not. They may also attack inanimate objects
  4. Altruism
    Avoid your own pains by concentrating on the pains of others. Maybe you can heal yourself and feel good by healing them and helping them to feel good
  5. Compartmentalization
     'divide and conquer' process for separating thoughts that will conflict with one another. This may happen when they are different beliefs or even when there are conflicting values.
  6. Compensation
    where a person has a weakness in one area, they may compensate by accentuating or building up strengths in another area. Thus when they are faced with their weakness, they can say 'ah, but I am good at...', and hence feel reasonably good about the situation. Compensation may also occur in ad hoc situations, for example where a person does not get a joke, they may compensate by hearty laughter or by feigning disinterest. 
  7. Conversion
    a defense mechanism occurs where cognitive tensions manifest themselves in physical symptoms. The symptom may well be symbolic and dramatic and it often acts as a communication about the situation. Extreme symptoms may include paralysis, blindness, and deafness, becoming mute or having a seizure. Lesser symptoms include tiredness, headaches and twitches.
  8. Denial
    1.      refusing to acknowledge that an event has occurred. The person affected simply acts as if nothing has happened, behaving in ways those others may see as bizarre. In its full form, it is totally subconscious, and sufferers may be as mystified by the behavior of people around them as those people are by the behavior of the sufferers. It may also have a significant conscious element, where the sufferer is simply 'turning a blind eye' to an uncomfortable situation.
  9. Displacement
    is the shifting of actions from a desired target to a substitute target when there is some reason why the first target is not permitted or not available. Displacement retaining the action and simply shifting the target of that action. Where this is not feasible, the action itself may also change. Where possible the second target will resemble the original target in some way. Phobias may also use displacement as a mechanism for releasing energy that is caused in other ways 
  10. Dissociation
    involves separating a set of thoughts or activities from the main area of conscious mind, in order to avoid the conflict that this would cause. Dissociation appear as taking an objective, third-person perspective, where you 'go to the balcony' and look down on the situation in order to remove emotion from your perspective (this is sometimes called 'dissociation of affect').
  11. Emotionality
    we become stressed or tension is caused, a number of negative emotions may start to build, including anger, frustration, fear, jealousy and so on. When we display these emotions it can affect others around us, arousing similar or polar feelings. A common social value is that we should not distress others; so many people hold the emotion in, 'bottling up' the stress. This in itself can trigger other coping mechanisms. It can also result in explosive outbursts as we are unable to contain the emotion further. Some people are either not good at restraining their emotions or are less concerned about the effect on others and more about the personal benefits of emotional outbursts. As a result, they regularly and habitually display extreme emotions.
  12. Fantasy
    When we cannot achieve nor do something that we want, we channel the energy created by the desire into fantastic imaginings. Fantasy also provides temporary relief from the general stresses of everyday living. 
  13. Help Rejection Complaining
     A person becomes upset or otherwise elicits supporting actions from other people. When helpful suggestions or other comfort is offered, however, they reject this and return to their complaint.
  14. Idealization
    the over-estimation of the desirable qualities and underestimation of thelimitations of a desired thing. We also tend to idealize those things that wehave chosen or acquired. The opposite of Idealization is Demonization, wheresomething that is not desired or disliked has its weak points exaggerated andits strong points played down.
  15. Indentification
    occurs when a person changes apparent facets of their personality such that theyappear to be more like other people. This process may be to be copy specific people or it may be to change to an idealized prototype. This generally happens as asubconscious process, as opposed to being a more conscious mimicking, althoughthese processes may occur together, as the person consciously as well as subconsciouslywants to be like the other person. Areas of identification may include externalelements, such as clothing and hair styles (which may be chosen withoutconsciously realizing the influences that are at play) as well as internalfactors such as beliefs, values and attitudes
  16. Intellectualization
     'flight into reason', where the person avoids uncomfortable emotions by focusing on facts and logic. The situation is treated as an interesting problem that engages the person on a rational basis, whilst the emotional aspects are completely ignored as being irrelevant. Jargon is often used as a device of intellectualization. By using complex terminology, the focus becomes on the words and finer definitions rather than the human effects.
  17. Introjection
    occurs as a coping mechanism when we take on attributes of other people who seem better able to cope with the situation than we do. 
  18. Passive-AggressiveAvoidance
    method to cope with stresses by 'attacking' others through passive means. Thus the aggressive intent is cloaked by the passive method. Passive aggression often appears when a person is asked to do something which they want to avoid for some reason (such as priority of other work). By appearing to agree but not making any real commitment, they can avoid the action. A more severe form of passive aggression is to agree to commitments and then not do anything to fulfill them. A toned down version is to do the minimum possible whilst putting on a grand show of appearing to be fully engaged.
  19. Performing Rituals
    Rituals are pre-defined sequences of activity. When faced with a difficult situation we may indulge in some form of ritualized activity rather than face the situation just now. In this way, we may avoid the problem for a few seconds and sometimes for much longer. These rituals can be small physical actions, long scripts of speech or more complex combinations of behavior.
  20. Projection
    When a person has uncomfortable thoughts or feelings, they may project these onto other people, assigning the thoughts or feelings that they need to repress to a convenient alternative target. Projection may also happen to obliterate attributes of other people with which we are uncomfortable. We assume that they are like us, and in doing so we allow ourselves to ignore those attributes they have with which we are uncomfortable.
  21. Provocation
    a person feels stressed, one way they avoid dealing with the real issues is to provoke others into some kind of reaction. The attention can then be put on the other person and away from the originator's stress. This is a common response when a person feels guilty about something. By provoking another person, the guilt can then be transferred to that person.
  22. Rationalization
    When something happens that we find difficult to accept, then we will make up a logical reason why it has happened. The target of rationalization is usually something that we have done, such as being unkind to another person. It may also be used when something happens independent of us which causes us discomfort, such as when a friend is unkind to us. We not only rationalize actions and the things we have done, we also find reason for our beliefs, models, values and other inner structures and thoughts. These systems are often implied in rationalization statements. We rationalize to ourselves. We also find it very important to rationalize to other people, even those we do not know.
  23. Reaction Formation
    occurs when a person feels an urge to do or say something and then actually does or says something that is effectively the opposite of what they really want.  It also appears as a defense against a feared social punishment. If I fear that I will be criticized for something, I very visibly act in a way that shows I am personally a long way from the feared position. A common pattern in Reaction Formation is where the person uses ‘excessive behavior’, for example using exaggerated friendliness when the person is actually feeling unfriendly.
  24. Regression
    involves taking the position of a child in some problematic situation, rather than acting in a more adult way. This is usually in response to stressful situations, with greater levels of stress potentially leading to more overt regressive acts. Regressive behavior can be simple and harmless, such as a person who is sucking a pen (as a Freudian regression to oral fixation), or may be more dysfunctional, such as crying or using petulant arguments.
  25. Repression
    involves placing uncomfortable thoughts in relatively inaccessible areas of the subconscious mind. Thus when things occur that we are unable to cope with now, we push them away, either planning to deal with them at another time or hoping that they will fade away on their own accord. The level of 'forgetting' in repression can vary from a temporary abolition of uncomfortable thoughts to a high level of amnesia, where events that caused the anxiety are buried very deep. Repressed memories do not disappear. They can have an accumulative effect and reappear as unattributable anxiety or dysfunctional behavior. A high level of repression can cause a high level of anxiety or dysfunction, although this may also be caused by the repression of one particularly traumatic incident. Repressed memories may appear through subconscious means and in altered forms, such as dreams or slips of the tongue ('Freudian slips'). 
  26. Self-harming
    person physically deliberately hurts themself in some way or otherwise puts themselves at high risk of harm. There is a whole spectrum of actions that can appear here, from harmlessly tapping one's head ('I'm so stupid') to drawing one's own blood and acting in reckless, near-suicidal ways. Self-harm is generally considered to be more about the more extreme end of this spectrum, where sustained bodily harm is caused. This can be a one-shot activity, taken in anger or frustration. It can also be an obsessive activity that can lead to life-threatening damage.
  27. Somatization
    occurs where a psychological problem turns intophysical and subconscious symptoms. This can range from simple twitching toskin rashes, heart problems and worse.
  28. Sublimation
    the transformation of unwanted impulses intosomething less harmful. This can simply be a distracting release or may be aconstructive and valuable piece of work. When we are faced with the dissonanceof uncomfortable thoughts, we create psychic energy. This has to go somewhere.Sublimation channels this energy away from destructive acts and into somethingthat is socially acceptable and/or creatively effective. Many sports and gamesare sublimations of aggressive urges, as we sublimate the desire to fight intothe ritualistic activities of formal competition.
  29. Substitution
    take something that leads to discomfort andreplace it with something that does not lead to discomfort. This 'something'may be range of items, including a behavior, a context or a physical item.
  30. Suppression
    this is where the person consciously and deliberately pushes down any thoughts that lead to feelings of anxiety. Actions that take the person into anxiety-creating situations may also be avoided. This approach is also used to suppress desires and urges that the person considers to be unworthy of them. This may range from sexual desires to feelings of anger towards other people for whatever reason.
  31. Symbolization
    a way of handling inner conflicts by turning them into distinct symbols. Symbols are often physical items, although there may also be symbolic acts and metaphoric ideas.
  32. Trivializing
    when we are faced with a disappointment over something that is important to us, we are faced with the problem of having our expectations and predictions dashed. We may even have told other people about it beforehand, making it doubly embarrassing that we have not gained what we expected. As a response, we make light of the situation, telling ourselves (and often other people) that it is not that important anyway, thus trivializing what was previously important. One way that we trivialize is to make something a joke, laughing it off.
  33. Undoing
    is performing an act to 'undo' a previous unacceptable act or thought. It is often a form of apology, although it may not include the actual act of saying that you are sorry. Confession is a form of undoing, including that done in a church to a priest or a secret admission to a close friend.

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