PSY 303 CH 1-5

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blueclues
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PSY 303 CH 1-5
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2012-10-01 02:40:07
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Physiological Psychology Nervous System Cells Structure Psychopharmacology Research
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Intro to Physiological Psych, the Nervous System, Psychopharmacology, Research
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  1. Cerebral Hemispheres
    2 major portions of the forebrain; covered by the cerebral cortex

    contains the limbic system and the basal ganglia
  2. Sensory Neuron
    information gathering neuron
  3. Motor Neuron
    movement neuron
  4. Interneuron
    all the neurons that are not Sensory or Motor neurons
  5. Central Nervous System
    the brain and spinal cord
  6. Peripheral Nervous System
    any part of the nervous system that is outside of the brain and spinal cord
  7. Soma
    cell body

    info processing part of a neuron - "decides what to send"
  8. Dendrite
    part of a neuron that recieves information from the terminal buttons of another neuron
  9. Synaptic Vesicles
    contain (house) neurotransmitters
  10. Synapse
    junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrane of another neuron

    joins neurons together
  11. Axon
    info sending part of a neuron
  12. Multipolar Neuron
    a neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma
  13. Bipolar Neuron
    a neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma

    Sensory neurons
  14. Unipolar Neuron
    a neuron with one axon attached to its soma; the axon is divided into two braches - one that receives sensory info and one that sends info to the CNS

    human embryos, invertabrates, some somatosensory neurons
  15. Terminal Button
    part of a neuron that forms a synapse with another neuron to send info to it

    # of outputs for a given neuron
  16. Neurotransmitter
    chemical message released by terminal buttons that start or stop the action of another neuron
  17. Membrane
    defines the boundaries of a cell via lipid molecules (fatlike molecules) and also constitutes many of the cell organelles
  18. Nucleus
    center of a cell that contains the nucleolus and chromosomes
  19. Nucleolus
    structure within the nucleus that makes ribosomes
  20. Ribosomes
    produces proteins translated from mRNA
  21. Non-Coding RNA (ncRNA)
    RNA that doesn't code for protein but has a function of its own
  22. Mitochondria
    organelle responsible for energy (ATP) production
  23. Rough ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)
    contains ribosomes 

    production of proteins secreted by the cell
  24. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    provides channels for segregation of molecules involved in cell processes
  25. Golgi Apparatus
    "Traffic director" of a cell
  26. Cytoskeleton
    gives the neuron its shape
  27. Microtubule
    part of cytoskeleton and involved in transporting substances from place to place within a cell
  28. Anterograde
    direction along the axon from the soma to the terminal buttons
  29. Retrograde
    direction along the axon from the terminal buttons to the soma
  30. Axoplasmic Transport
    process by which substances are propelled along microtubules running the length of the axon
  31. Glial Cells (& the 3 Types)
    supporting cells of the NS

    Astrocytes

    Oligodendrocytes

    Connective tissue
  32. Astrocyte
    glial cells that remove waste and deliver nutrients (oxygen and glucose) to neurons

    "scavengers"
  33. Oligodendrocytes
    glial cells that provide myelin for axons in the CNS

    release several axons
  34. Myelin Sheath
    sheath surrounding axons that insulates most of them from one another

    speeds up the firing
  35. Schwann Cells
    cells that provide myelin for axons in the PNS

    realease one axon
  36. Node of Ranvier
    naked portion of a myelinated axon between oligodendroglia or Schwann cells
  37. Microglia
    smallest glial cells that protect the brain from other microorganisms
  38. When at rest, the osmotic gradient is more powerful than ___.
    electrical
  39. Osmotic Gradient
    movement towards equillibrium
  40. Electrostatic Force + Osmotic Force = ___ ___
    Driving Force
  41. Sodium-Potassium Pump
    small pump that uses ATP to get rid of 3 Na+ and bring in 2 K+
  42. Electrogenic
    creates a charge
  43. Selectively Gated Channel
    very specific for which ions it allows to move in and out of a cell
  44. Ligand
    any chemical that can bind
  45. Ligand Gated Channel
    channel will open for a particular ligand and allow certain ions to pass
  46. Voltage Gated Channel
    needs a change in voltage to open
  47. Axon Hillock
    where an action potential starts

    "decison to send info"
  48. Action Potential
    "the signal" that provides the basis for sending information along the axon

    All or Nothing
  49. Electrostatic Force
    the attractive and repulsive force between ions
  50. Nondecremental Conduction
    strength of signal never decreases
  51. Saltatory Conduction
    signal "jumps" from node to node of a myelinated axon
  52. Decremental Conduction
    the further away from the area of dispursment the less the effect
  53. Signaling
    electrical impulse that (usually) results in a chemical signal to influence other neurons
  54. Information Processing
    weighing IPSPs against EPSPs to determine whether or not to fire
  55. Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)
    basis for signaling

    stored potential enerygy that allows signal to happen

    voltage inside the cell as oppsed to outside the cell
  56. Electrogenic
    creates a charge
  57. Inside of a cell is (on average) ___ mV more negative than the outside.
    70
  58. Mechanisms responsible for RMP
    phospholipid bilayer

    organic anions

    Na+/K+ pump - electrogenic
  59. Morphology
    size and shape of neurons

    projections they have and the neurotransmitters they release
  60. ___ mV = point at which a neuron fires
    +55 mV
  61. Organic Anions (A-)
    negatively charged proteins and intermediate products of the cell's metabolic processes
  62. Information processing at the level of the cell is dependent on ___.
    ___ what input the cell receives.
  63. EPSP (Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential)
    Depolarizing

    makes a cell more positive
  64. IPSP (Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential)
    Hyperpolarizing

    makes a cell more negative
  65. Autonomic
    Automatic (hard wired processing)

    • 1. maintinance of functions for survival - breathing
    • 2. maint. of activity for adaptive function - sleep cycles
    • 3. Protection - immune system
  66. Structural Units of the CNS and the PNS
    Neurons

    Glial Cells
  67. 3 Neuron Types
    Motor

    Sensory

    Interneuron
  68. Immune System for NS
    microglia and blood vessels
  69. 3 Cell Morphology Classifications
    Unipolar

    Bipolar

    Multipolar
  70. Information processing at the level of the cell is dependent on ___.
    what input the cell recieves
  71. The ___ of the neuron is the ___ required to open a voltage gated channel.
    voltage
  72. Threshold
    Voltage needed to Fire
  73. Myelinated axons are much faster than non-myelinated axons; because ___.
    current doesn't leak out on a myelinated axon

    myelinated axon also needs fewer dipoles than non-myelinated axons
  74. ___ of the neurotransmitters released actually make it to the post synaptic cell
    less than half
  75. 4 Fates of Neurotransmitters
    1. Bind to post synaptic cell

    2. Bind to an autoreceptor

    3. Reuptake via "FedEx" proteins

    4. Enzymatic breakdown - ligands get digested (Pac-Man)
  76. Constituatively Active
    Constantly active
  77. Auto Receptor (aka: a Feedback Loop)
    ionotropic channel in the pre-synaptic cell that prevents saturation 
  78. When a ligand binds to an auto receptor, it shuts down neurotransmitter release, by ___.
    closing/blocking Ca++ channels
  79. Reuptake
    "FedEx" proteins pick up just released loose neurotransmitters and carry them back to the presynaptic cell

    constituatively active
  80. Enzymatic Deactivation/Breakdown
    the digestion of just released ligands by "Pac-Man" enzymes.
  81. The fate of neurotransmitters are ___ regulated.  The system must ___.
    Temporally

    Adapt
  82. GPCR
    activates an enzyme that produces a 2nd  messenger that opens nearby ion channels
  83. Ionotropic (Ligand Gated Channel)
    1 ligand binds and opens 1 channel

    FAST
  84. Metabotropic (Ligand Gated Channel)
    1 ligand binds and opens several channels

    SLOW, but amplifies the signal coming out
  85. Intervening process of a metabotropic channel must be done "manually" by a ___.
    protein
  86. Types of Synapses (3)
    1. Axodendritic

    2. Axosomatic

    3. Axoaxonic
  87. The FASTER a neuron fires, the more ___ gets in.
    Ca++
  88. A small _PSP is powerful enough to override a massive _PSP
    small IPSP overrides a massive EPSP
  89. Dipole
    flow of current across a barrier

    "ions flowing across membrane"
  90. 1 Vessicle = 1 ___ of Neurotransmitter
    Quanta
  91. "Firing Squad" (order) and its Impact
    # of Vessicles =

    # of Quanta =

    # of Neurotransmitter released =

    # NT Bound =

    # Open Channels =

    # Ions flowing across Membrane =

    # IPSP or EPSP
  92. Cells can change their impact by changing their ___ ___ via ___.
    Firing Rate

    Summation
  93. Temporal Summation
    1 cell changes it's firing rate

    (ie: 10 action potentials vs 1 action potential)
  94. Spatial Summation
    coordinated effort of several cells changing their firing rate at the same time for the same purpose
  95. A neuron firing at X rate = X Response (____ or ____)
    IPSP or EPSP
  96. Tone
    level of activation
  97. Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic

    They are ___ to one another. When one is elevated, the other is supressed.
    oppositional
  98. Divisions of the Nervous System
    Central (CNS) and Peripheral (PNS)
  99. Divisions of the Peripheral NS
    Autonomic NS and Somatic NS
  100. Divisions of the Autonomic NS
    Sympathetic Division and Parasympathetic Division
  101. Division of the Somatic NS
    Somatic Motor and Somatic Sensory
  102. "Fight or Flight" division of the Autonomic Division
    Sympathetic Division
  103. Blood Brain Barrier
    protection of CNS from all substances outside the brain
  104. Exogenous
    outside the brain
  105. The Central Nervous System is supported and surrounded by the ___, ___, and ___ ___.
    meninges, dura, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  106. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    solution acts as a buffer for the brain, provides nutrients (glucose and protein), and disipates heat
  107. Things clump together based on ___.
    function
  108. Techniques for determining the principle Function for specific structures
    Case Studies (starting point NOT causal) 

    Stimulation (electrodes)

    Lesion Studies (ablation)

    Psychopharmacology (chemical NOT physical)
  109. Phylogenetic
    genetic devolopment across a species (evolution)
  110. Ontogenetic
    development of an individual species
  111. Anterior (Rostral)
    "toward the beak" ... front/face
  112. Posterior (Caudal)
    "toward the tail" ... rear
  113. Dorsal
    "toward the back"
  114. Ventral
    "toward the belly"
  115. Midline
    center most point on any axis
  116. Medial
    toward the midline
  117. Lateral
    toward the sides of the body - away from the midline
  118. Bilateral
    crosses both sides
  119. Ipsilateral
    located on the same (one) side of the body
  120. Contralateral
    located on the opposite side of the body
  121. Superior
    above
  122. Inferior
    below
  123. Distal
    further from reference point with respect to midline
  124. Proximal
    closer to midline of body than reference point
  125. Afferent
    Toward any reference point

    (ie. sensory pathway)
  126. Efferent
    away from any reference point

    (ie. motor pathway)
  127. If a reference piont is not specified, the ___ ___ ___ is the reference point.
    Central Nervous System
  128. Horizontal (Transverse) Section
    slice through the brain parallel to the ground

    see front and back of the top and bottom
  129. Coronal (frontal) Section
    a slice through the brain parallel to the forehead

    see top and bottom of the front and back
  130. Sagittal Section
    a slice through the brain that gives a left and right half

    see top, bottom, front, and back of the left and right
  131. Divisions of the Spinal Cord
    Cervical (Neck)

    Thoracic (Chest)

    Lumbar (Lower Back)

    Sacral (Pelvic)
  132. # Vertabrae in Cervical section of Spinal Cord
    7
  133. # Vertabrae in Thoracic section of Spinal Cord
    12
  134. # Vertabrae in Lumbar section of Spinal Cord
    5
  135. # Vertabrae in Sacral section of Spinal Cord
    0 - vertabrae are fused
  136. In the Spinal Cord, white matter is on the ___side and gray matter is on the ___side.  This is the opposite of the brain's white and gray matter.
    white - outside

    gray - inside
  137. Dorsal Root Ganglion
    contains afferent neurons
  138. Ventral Root Ganglion
    contains efferent neurons
  139. White Matter in the spinal cord contains ___
    contains myelinated axons
  140. Gray Matter in the spinal cord contains ___
    contains mostly nueral cell bodies and short UNmyelinated axons
  141. Superior Colliculi
    presence/absence of sight/light
  142. Inferior Colliculi
    presence/absence of sound
  143. Medulla Oblongata
    heart rate and respiration

    reticular (net-like) formation - role in arousal
  144. Pons
    arousal and autonomic functions (locus coeruleus)

    relay from "higher" CNS regions to PNS
  145. Cerebellum
    some motor control and balance (integration)

    some activity in activation
  146. Tectum
    primitive sensory processing (1st spot)

    superior and inferior colliculi
  147. Tegmentum
    involvement in motor functions, arousal, and autonomic activity
  148. Substantia Nigra
    movement (extension of basal ganglia)
  149. Thalamus
    sensory relay for everything except olfactory (smell)

    role in coordinated activity ("rate regulator") - oscillations

    groups of neurons in the thalamus project all over

    Only part of brain that has information about things co-occuring
  150. Oscillations
    firing and timing of neurons
  151. Hypothalamus
    conected with the pituitary glands

    regulation of autonomic functions/behaviors and endocrine system (temperature and sleep regulation)

    organizes the 4 Fs
  152. The 4 Fs
    organized by the hypothalamus

    • - Feeding
    • - Fighting
    • - Fleeing
    • - Fucking
  153. Basal Ganglia
    movement coordination (voluntary movement)

    motor refinement for re-tasking (responding)
  154. Divisions of the Limbic System
    Hippocampus

    Amygdala
  155. Hippocampus
    learning and memory

    - most clearly shows plasticity in the brain
  156. Amygdala
    emotional response/integration

    associating senses with memory
  157. Cerebral Cortex
    vital role in perception, cognition, and control of movement
  158. Purpose of the cerebral cortex being folded ___
    more surface area
  159. Sulcus
    groove
  160. Gyrus
    Convolution

    have specific names and functions
  161. Fissure
    major groove
  162. Lobes
    large divisions of area and function
  163. Real difference between humans and other mammals
    humans have a highly folded cerebral cortex
  164. 4 Lobes
    Temporal

    Occipital

    Parietal

    Frontal
  165. Temporal Lobe
    primary auditory cortex
  166. Occipital Lobe
    primary visual cortex
  167. Parietal Lobe
    primary somatosensory cortex
  168. Frontal Lobe
    primary motor cortex
  169. PreFrontal Cortex
    high executive function

    last part of brain to develop

    socially acceptable behavior

    complex ideas
  170. Association Cortex
    point where all lobes relate
  171. Topographic Organization
    in some regions, neurons that respond to adjacent points in space are next to each other

    "short cuts" for quicker responses
  172. Topographic
    "map" locations based on what neurn is firing
  173. Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Principle excitatory NT in efferent (away/motor) projections and autonomic NS
  174. ACh effect on the CNS and Disorders/Dangers
    sleep regulation (REM)

    Attention/ Learning and Memory

    Activation level (tone) within the CNS

    - Alzheimer's, toxins
  175. 2 types of ACh Receptors
    Nicotinic - ionotropic

    Muscarinic - metabotropic (more #s in CNS)
  176. Cholinergic neurons release ___ and cholinergic receptors have to bind with ___. 
    Acetylcholine
  177. Monoamines
    similarly structured family of transmitters:

    Dopamine

    Norepinepherine

    Epinepherine (adrenaline)

    Serotonin
  178. Dopamine (DA)

    Functions and Dangers
    dopaminergic

    produces EPSPs and IPSPs depending on the region of CNS

    Motor systems: basal ganglia

    Reward/Reinforcement - Learning/Memory: Limbic System

    Projections to Cortex

    Parkinson's (loss of dopaminergic neurons)

    Drugs of Abuse: extent to which it causes dopamine to release

    Depression and Schizophrenia???
  179. Norepinepherine (NE) / Noradrenaline
    Noradrenergic

    Drives arousal throught CNS - locus ceruleus projections

    PNS and activity as hormone - endocrine
  180. Endocrine
    hormone

    no particular binding site - spreads throughout system via blood stream

    cannot meddle w/ specific groups w/i groups - messes with entire system
  181. Epinephrine/ Adrenaline
    NOT one of the Classic 6 NT

    causes an elevation of sympathetic tone

    Outside NS: acts as a hormone

    w/i CNS: limited activity

    arousal
  182. The classic 6 NT do NOT ___-___ in the same terminal; but other NT will ___-___ with one of the classic 6
    co-localize
  183. Serotonin (5-HT)
    serotinergic

    ALL receptors (except 5-HT3) are metabotropic and capable of IPSPs and EPSPs (depending on type)

    • Mediates several systems:
    • All 5 senses
    • Homeostasis: sleep, appetite/ingestive behavior
    • Aggressive behavior
    • Learning and Memory
    • "Mood"

    • Role in Hallucinogens
    • Depression and OCD???
  184. Amino Acids
    Glutamate

    GABA
  185. Glutamate and it's Receptors
    Principle excitatory NT of the CNS (Na+ channels)

    • Receptors:
    • AMPA - Ionotropic
    • Kainate - Ionotropic
    • NMDA - Ionotropic AND Voltage gated (Ca++ channels)
    • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors - M Glu R

    • Mediates SEVERAL systems
    • Learning and Memory
  186. GABA
    Principle inhibitory NT of the CNS

    when released - produces IPSPs

    • Receptors:
    • GABA - Ionotropic Cl- (supressant)
    • GABA - Metabotropic (slower but sustained supressant)

    • Mediates SEVERAL systems:
    • Learning and memory
    • coordinated population activity
    • seizure disorders
  187. Exocytosis is dependent on ___ for neurotransmitters
    Ca++
  188. Peptides
    Larger than typical NT - modulates what a classic NT does (neuro-protective) ...  Enhances or Inhibits

    • Modulates the activity of many systems
    • Fine tuning of classic NT activity
    • Impacts almost ALL behavior

    • Receptors:
    • PNS and CNS distribution
    • Can act as a NT (specific site) or effect a geteral area
  189. NMDA
    Glutamate receptor

    Ionotropic AND Voltage gated (Ca++ channels)

    "Coincidence Detector" - Glutamate MUST BIND, but Mg+ will NOT move unless it reaches a certain charge (depolarized)
  190. Pharmacodynamics (PD)
    what a Drug does to the body

    time course and intensity of the effect of a drug on the body
  191. Pharmacokinetics (PK)
    "movement of drugs"

    what the Body does to a drug

    time course of a drug and it's metabolites through the body
  192. ADME PK
    Extensive process for drug development

    A
    bsorption - administration

    Distribution within the body (between tissues) - permeability

    Metabolism (broken down by enzymes) - sequence

    Excretion (removal): active and passive process

    Pharmacokinetics - time course and progression for ADME
  193. Affinity
    how well a ligand binds to a receptor
  194. A ___ affinity needs less of a ligand to bind; and a ___ affinity needs more of a ligand to bind
    Strong/Weak
  195. Disassociation Constant (Kd)
    measure of affinity
  196. A ___ Kd = a Stronger Affinity
    Lower
  197. Intrinsic Activity
    the extent (%) of the effect of ligand binding to receptor
  198. Direct Agonist
    an agonist that fights for the activation site of the principle ligand
  199. Agonist
    any ligand that facilitates/activates
  200. Indirect Agonist
    agonist that binds "anywhere" - does not compete for the binding site of the principle ligand
  201. Partial Agonist
    agonist that does NOT have 100% intrinsic activation
  202. Antagonist
    any ligand that Inhibits

    Intrinsic Activity = 0
  203. Competitive Antagonist
    competes for the binding site of Endogenous ligands
  204. Non-Competitive Antagonist
    prevents function, but not at the binding site
  205. Non-Reversible Agonist
    when they bind, that NT never functions again!
  206. 4 main Actions of Drugs
    Stimulating

    Depressing

    Replacement of Endogenous

    Scavange (Destruction)
  207. Factors that influence Kinetics and Dynamics
    Route of administration (formulations)

    Duration of Effect (half life) - frequency of administration

    Characteristics of subject taking the drug

    Drug-Drug interactions (shared degredation pathways)
  208. 1st Pass Effect
    liver breaks down "stuff" before it gets used - more is broken down than is ever used
  209. Half Life (t1/2)
    how long it takes for HALF the drug to be destroyed by enzymes

    based on the enzymes that break it down
  210. Dose Response Curve
    measure of effect a drug dose has

    • y axis: effect
    • x axis: dose
  211. Factors that PK and PD influence
    Potency of the drug

    Affinity and Intrinsic Activity

    Dose Response Curve
  212. Dose Response Curve: Slope
    gives measure of potency
  213. Dose Response Curve: Saturation
    every receptor is already bound to, so there is no more effect even with more drug
  214. Sensitization
    when a drug becomes more and more effective
  215. Tolerance
    when a drug becomes less and less effective
  216. P.O. (Pill) - administration
    Tissue: GI tract

    Speed: Moderate

    Benefit: Duration, no Pain

    Liability: 1st Pass Effect
  217. IM (Intromuscular)
    Tissue: Muscle

    Speed: Fast

    Benefit: No GI issues

    Liability: Pain
  218. IV (Intravenous)
    Tissue: Blood

    Speed: Super Fast

    Benefit: Depot

    Liability: Pain
  219. Intracerebralventricular (IVC)
    Tissue: one of the cerebral ventricles

    Speed: almost immediate

    Benefit: crosses BBB

    Liability: Pain, Surgery

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