Egyptian and Aegean Art (part 1)

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    • The Later Canon of Egyptian Art (After Panofsky)
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt 
    • Techniques:
    • broad shoulders and narrow hips
    • conceptual approach
    • characteristic main parts at right angles
    • symbolic representation of eternal wakefulness
    • systematic figure construction
    • composite figures with a large frontal eye
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    • Palette of Narmer
    • Era: Early Dynastic, 3000 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • from upper Egypt
    • slate slab, durable stone
    • earliset historical record of the subjigation of lower Egypt
    • actual event happened over several centuries but to the Egyptians it was one miraculous event
    • utilitarian object (had a practical use) - application of make-up
    • Egyptians painted black around the eyes to prevent the glare of the sum
    • black substance prepared in this palette
    • top of both sides have two heads of the goddess Hathor who had the horns of a cow
    • hieroglyph between two heads is Narmer's name inside a palace frame
    • Back Side
    •    -Narmer is the largest figure (hierarchy of scale) slaying an enemy
    •    -inevitable triumph of god-king over the enemy
    •    -bare-footed on ground line=flat footed - standing on holy ground and this is therefore a holy event
    •    -servant holding sandals but not on ground line - not true ground line
    •    -Narmer is wearing crown of upper Egypt (bowling pin)
    •    -Horus, the falcon, is the protector of the king
    •    -falcon has human arms
    •    -falcon is taking captive human-headed heiroglyph with a papyrus plant growing out of it representing lower Egypt
    •    -unification of upper and lower Egypt
    •    -bodies falling from lower to upper Egypt
    • Front Side
    •    -two cats (sacred animals) with long necks create make-up well
    •    -long necks represent the unification of Egypt
    •    -Upper Register
    •       ~Narmer wearing a crown that is a curled bowling pin (crown of lower Egypt)
    •       ~Narmer viewing the dead (private ritual)
    •       ~dead are lined up, decapitated with their heads between their legs
    •    -Bottom Register
    •       ~bull kncoking down wall
    •       ~bull in profile but city in aerial view
    •       ~brutal yet divine support
    • not a narrative, event took place over centuries
    • Narmer is isolated from ordinary men
    • he is the sole victor of the war
    • thought, art, and state policy establishes a pharroh as a divine ruler
    • registers and ground lines used for organization
    • stone slab is eternal and functional
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    • Mastaba Tomb
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt
    • Techniques:
    • rectangular brick with sloping sides erected over and underground tonb
    • sarcophagus is placed deep beneath the surface
    • deep shaft leading to sarcophagus
    • first singles, then families, and then more complex mastabas
    • surrounded by storage rooms
    • built a chapel into outer structure to house a statue of the deceased, a serdab
    • false door to hide real treasure
    • interior of wall covered in painted relief carvings to provide deceased with food and entertainment
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    • Stepped Pyramid of Kind Zoser
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 2650 BCE
    • Architect: Immotep
    • first recorded artist and architect
    • Father of Egyptian Medicine
    • also a wizard, sage, scribe, and priest
    • official royal architect for King Zoser
    • Pharroh's chancellor
    • high priest of sun god
    • Techniques:
    • each face matches one point of the compass
    • first monumental royal tomb
    • 200 feet tall
    • symbolize's the pharroh's god-like power
    • network of underground galleries
    • entire complex surrounded by 540ft long, 34ft tall white limestone wall
    • funerary temples, tent buildings, around the step pyramid have early forms of columns
    • tent buildings were dummy structures used to fool grave robbers
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    • Upper Egyptian Tent Building
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt 
    • Techniques:
    • poles (early form of colums) hold up roof 
    • lower part of poles had fluting (vertical grooves)
    • "captials" mimic papyrus stalks
    • engaged column (attached to wall)
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    • Great Pyramids of Gizeh
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt 
    • Techniques:
    • built over 75 years
    • oldest of the Ancient Wonders of the World (all chosen based upon collasal size and enormous cost
    • symbolizes:
    •    -arts of magic
    •    -political stability
    •    -eternity
    •    -Egypt itself
    •    -primevall wisdom
    • Re's (god) ben-ben was his symbol (pyramid shaped) that represented the sun
    • Heliopolis, city around the sun
    • sides of pyramids are ramps to the sun and the heavens
    • people are reborn in the afterlife just as the sun is reborn everyday
    • sides face compass points so than one can ride up the ramps into the sun
    • 3 different pyramids for 3 different pharrohs
    • Khufu's Pyramid
    •    -2530 BCE
    •    -one side at the base runs 775ft
    •    -originally 480ft tall but now is 450ft
    •    -2.3 million stones on the surface each weighing 2.5 tons
    •    -covers 13 acres
    • Menkaure's pyramid constructed in 2460 BCE
    • Khafre's pyramid constructed in 2500 BCE
    • almost solid mass of limestone masonry
    • smooth sides of pyramid reflect sunlight to make the pyramid shine like the sun
    • represented the pharroh's power over the people if they would build him a giant pyramid
    • relieving stones over sarcophagus and doorways
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    • Great Sphinx
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 2530 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • in front of Khafre's pyramid
    • 65ft tall and 200ft long
    • combination of man and beast
    • facial features of Khafre
    • guards the ruler's tomb
    • represents the ruler's absolute power
    • cloth headress worn
    • body of lion
    • composite figure of sphinx represents human intelligence and the strenght and authority of the lion
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    • Khafre
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 2500 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • 66in tall
    • 1 of 23 figures carved for his temple
    • subtractive sculture
    • side of throne has intertwined papyrus and lotus blossums in relief representing the unification of Egypt
    • rigidly upright figure
    • frontal pose surpresses movement and time symbolizing the eternal stillness of figure and the Ka
    • closed sculpture
    • one hand is clenched symbolizing power, determination, and control
    • throne has lions on front showing his power and authority
    • wearing simple kilt and headress
    • relief carving of cobra on forehead
    • Horis is behind his head
    • pharroh is flawless and god-like, looks young and strong
    • facial expression - serene
    • compact, serenity, solidity=few breakable parts
    • cubic style of sculpture - intenses skill, working from front to back
    • coming out of stone shows his strenght
    • made of diorite, as stone that lasts for eternity
    • diorite has a slight shine known as the play of light and shadow on the sculpture
    • represents the eternal Ka
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    • Menkaure and His Bride
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt 2490-2472 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • rigid upright stance
    • clenched fist
    • made of graywhacke
    • double portrait sculpture
    • female almost equal
    • eternal home for the Ka
    • well built body
    • his left leg is slightly forward but there is no shift in the hips and he is flat-footed (not realistic)
    • stereotypical gesture of their martial status
    • no emotion ever portrayed
    • traces of paint on sculpture
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    • Seated Scribe
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 2450-2350 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • hanging skin and sunken cheeks demonstrate age
    • painted limestone (not as durable)
    • 12 inches tall
    • frontality of head and body
    • increased realism
    • has personality and shows sympathy
    • holding a scroll
    • sitting on the ground shows a laxed formality
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    • Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 2400 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • 4ft tall
    • painted limestone relief used often as funerary art inside tomb
    • Ti was head architect
    • composite figure
    • hierarchy of scale
    • every activity and chore is done for him
    • demonstrates triumph over evil forces (hippos)
    • towering papyrus stalks in background
    • presentation of natural life
    • other men are frantic and chaotic, connecting them to the material world but Ti stands apart from the chaos as a passive observer
    • life and death occur simultaneously, two states of being
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    • Rock-Cut Tombs
    • Era: Middle Kingdom Egypt, 2000 BCE
    • Location: Beni Hasan
    • Techniques:
    • cut into cliff side
    • well hidden
    • portico led to columned hallway and then sacred burial chamber
    • fluted columns, not weight-bearing, merely decorative
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    • Feeding of Oryxes 
    • Era: Old Kingdom Egypt, 1900 BCE
    • Location: Tomb of Khnumhotep, Beni Hasan
    • Techniques:
    • oryx was a pet of the gentry
    • greater realism
    • profile bodies with frontal eye
    • foreshortening with upper mans arms
    • angular figure on top and rounded figure on bottom
    • attempt at recession into space by providing a fore, middle, and background
    • originally brighter
    • heiroglyphics that explain the deeds and activities of the Ka
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    • Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1450 BCE
    • Location: Deir El-Bahri
    • Techniques:
    • erected at the foot of a huge cliff - blends into background for protection
    • 3 columned terraces connected by ramps
    • leading up to bottom ramp would have been a row of sphinxes
    • emphasis on lines - long horizontals (terraces) and verticals (collonades)
    • rhythm comes through in the play of light and shadow and repeated patterns in the collonades
    • beveled pillars, flattening at the top
    • perfectly balanced spaces between pillars
    • terraces covered in trees and plants, nature
    • believed to be daughter of Amen Re
    • represents the achievement of women
    • her face was often put on a male body - equal of man
    • walls have painted relief representing her Punt coronation and her divine birth
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    • Temple of Ramses II
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1257 BCE
    • Location: Abu Simbel
    • Techniques:
    • cut into sandstone cliff
    • temple itself is 65ft tall
    • 4 colossal statues of himself on the exterior
    • statues like detail and refinement
    • last great warrior pharroh 
    • magnifies his power and authority
    • each statue is so compact and upright that they are described as caryatids (columns in human form)
    • statues inside are only 32ft tall and have the face of Osiris
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    • Pylon Temple of Horus
    • Era: Ptolomeic Period, 237-212 BCE
    • Location: Edfu
    • Techniques:
    • could honor one or more gods
    • side of temple shaped like a pylon cone
    • bilaterally symmetrical plan
    • only pharrohs and high priests could enter inner sanctuary
    • lots of sphinxes leading up to pylon
    • sloped front wall to shut off view of outer world
    • channels hold standards
    • sunken relief sculpture on front wall (figures of Horus)
    • tops and edges capped off with a thin molding
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    • Temple of Amen-Re
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1280 BCE
    • Location: Karnak
    • Techniques:
    • known for its interior hypostyle hall
    • huge columns built to hold up roof
    • tallest columns (66ft) in center
    • 22ft diameter of each column
    • high windows allowed natural lighting
    • bud or bell shaped columns
    • columns covered in sunken relief
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    • Temple of Amen-Mut-Khonsu
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1280 BCE
    • Location: Luxor
    • Techniques:
    • pylon temple
    • no sunken relief on front wall
    • molding on top is thicker and porjects out further
    • unique bud post and lintel columns 
    • wider stylized fluting
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    • Fowling Scene
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1450 BCE
    • Location: Tomb of Nebamun, Thebes
    • Techniques:
    • dry plaster - more fragile
    • the activites he is enjoying in the after life
    • compostie figures
    • naturalism with nature
    • the woman kind of creates recession into space
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    • Musicians and Dancers
    • Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 1450 BCE
    • Location: Tomb of Nebamun, Thebes
    • Techniques:
    • not using canon
    • lots of overlap 
    • figures facing different directions 
    • soles of feet face out at viewer representing a relaxed state
    • suggests movement by loose hair
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    • Akhenaton
    • Era: Armana Revolution, 1375 BCE
    • Location: Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak
    • Techniques:
    • made of sandstone
    • standard frontal pose
    • thin arms
    • protruding stomach 
    • fatty thighs
    • believed that he actually looked like this
    • has a slight facial expression
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    • Queen Nefertiti
    • Era: Armana Revolution, 1360 BCE
    • Location: Tell El-Amarna
    • Techniques:
    • made of limestone
    • sensitivity to contours of face
    • long thin neck, thin nose, full lips, high cheek bones, pronounced chin
    • unfinished sculpture possibly
    • Thutmos is the believed artist
    • inlaid eyes mad of glass paste
    • elaborate headress
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    • Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters
    • Era: Armana Revolution, 1353-1335 BCE
    • Location: Tell El-Amarna
    • Techniques:
    • sunken relief
    • stele
    • intimate portrayal of Akhenaton and his family
    • undulating curves
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Egyptian and Aegean Art (part 1)
2012-09-03 02:09:55

Egyptian and Aegean Art (part 1)
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