GCSE Geography

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Author:
ghoran
ID:
167948
Filename:
GCSE Geography
Updated:
2012-08-29 06:36:41
Tags:
urban change part 13 developed cities UK problems housing traffic congestion
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revision
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  1. the UK is facing a housing crisis as demand for homes continues to outstrip supply . several social trends are pulling in the same direction , creating the extra need :
    • Total population is increasing (in 1950 50 million ; now 60 million) 
    • Total households are rising (in 1950 15 million ; now 25 million) 
    • More people now live alone (in 1950 10% of householdsditch one adult ; now 30%) 
  2. Thegreatest suffer from the housing crisis is
    London
  3. Why is London the greatest suffer from the housing crisis
    Because it faces pressures from in-migration From other parts of the UK and immigration from parts of the EU
  4. How does the government plan to protect greenfieldsites from further urban sprawl 
    It's policy is to use brownfield sites 
  5. Brownfield site
    An area of previously built up land that is available to build on again 
  6. Greenfield site 
    An area of open land that has never previously been built on 
  7. Gentrification
    This is the associated movement of wealthy people back into an arepoor former decay
  8. What zone has the largest supply of brownfield sites
    Inner city . This is an important consideration when new building is at premium and objection to using greenfield sites are increasing 
  9. An important part of many dock , river an canal side redevelopment schemes is
    The conversion of old warehouses into good loking modern apartments . At the same
  10. An important part of many dock , river an canal side redevelopment schemes is
    the conversion of old warehouses into good looking modern apprtments , at the same time the enviornment in the area around them is cleaned up and landscaped
  11. where are there very few unused brownfield sites
    in the city centre
  12. what buildings are concentrated in the city centre
    buildings of historical and cultural importance (cathedrals and castles , town halls and other public buildings from victorian times such as galleries and museums , libaries and railway stations) which are listed buildings for preservation
  13. in a combat to overcome the housing crisis some fine old commericial buildings
    no longer needed as offices , have been renovated for use as luxury flats and up-market hotels . However , using brownfield sites can still make only a partial contribution to the 3 million homes needed by 2020
  14. the most congested part of any city is the
    centre 
  15. the street plan of the city centre was laid out way before the motorcar was invented ; the oldest streets are ofetn the narrowest . With little pavement space , the
    conflicts between the needs of pedestrians and drivers are at their greatest
  16. why is there congestion in the city centre 
    as the city centre is unique , with few full time residents 
    , anyone who works there , goes there to shop or visits its restuarants , cinemas , theatres and clubs needs transport to get there . Congestion peaks during morning and evening rush hour on working days 
  17. why is there air pollution in the city centre 
    gridlocked traffiic , stopping , starting and crawling along causes more air pollution than smoothly flowing traffic . Pollutants are trapped in deep narrow streets , explaining why many cities suffer from poor air qaulity , with related dangers for human health (fatigue , headaches , asthma and bronchitis) . There are also the wider global pollution issues that arise from burning fossil fuels 
  18. for a long time the focus was on trying to accomodate the traffic, espcecially people and their cars . Widely used attempted solutions included :
    • ring roads and bypasses to keep through traffic out of the centre 
    • urban motorways and flyovers to help drivers reach destinations faster
    • multistorey and underground car parks 
    • one way traffic systems , avoiding predstrianised high streets 
  19. today to try and comabt traffic the focus has shifted to
    encouraging people to give up their cars and use public transport
  20. what is the stick and carrot
    • this is a way of trying to encourage people to give up their cars and use public transport instead 
    • the stick is charging for entry into city centres , accompanied by increased charges for parking and the carrot is providing an imprved efficient public transport system
  21. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example the M60 ring road keeps
    the through traffic out of the centre reducing congestion and therefor air pollution in the city centre .
  22. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example the Manchester metro link is in the process of
    replacing their origional fleet of trams with new yellow and silver M5000 trams . Now passengers will experience quiter and smoother tram journeys . It may encourage more people to use trams which would reduce air pollution and congestion in the city as there would be less cars on the road
  23. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example on the A580 in Manchester there will be
    bus lanes to speed up the bus services to encoutage people to use public transport insted of private cars to reduce air pollution and congestion in the city
  24. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example Bus priority aims to
    improve nus travel between Leigh , Atherton , Middleton , Pars Wood and across Manchester city centre . It will improve the qaulity , punctuality , convinience and reliabilty of bus journeys . It aims to encoutage people to use public transport insted of private cars to reduce air pollution and congestion in the city
  25. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example stagecoah has launched hybrid eco buses . The hybrid design
    will emit 30% less carbon dioxide than standard buses reducing air pollution . These buses also offer a smoother more comfortable ride . It aims to encoutage people to use public transport insted of private cars to reduce air pollution and congestion in the city
  26. Manchester has tried to comabt traffic in many ways for example copying London they have a 
    cycle hire scheme whereby residents, commuters and visitors to Manchester will be able to hire a British hand-made folding bike located outside Piccadilly Station to get around Manchester to encourage Mancunians to cycle instead of using alternative modes of transport , with the aim or reducing congestion and pollution 

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