A&P chapter 2

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pickliz
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167982
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A&P chapter 2
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2012-08-29 13:38:48
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biochemistry
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  1. Define Matter
    anything that has weight and takes up space. Exists in 3 forms (solid, liquid, gas)
  2. Definte Elements
    Substances that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means. 
  3. atoms
    smallest complete unit of an element.  Vary in size, weight, and how they interact with other atoms.  composed of subatomic particles including protons neutrons and electrons. 
  4. atomic number
    Number of protons in the nucleus.  Also the number of electrons.
  5. atomic weight (mass)
    the average mass of all its naturall accuring isotopes and relects the relative abundance of isotopes with different mass numbers.  
  6. isotope
    # of neutrons is different than # of protons.  # Protons is always stable.
  7. molecules
    two or more atoms that form a chemical bond.
  8. compound
    atoms of different elements that have formed a bond.
  9. ion
    an atom that has a positive or negativ charge due to having enqual numbers of protons and electrons.
  10. anion
    atoms that gain an electron become negatively charged ions
  11. cation
    atoms that lose an electron become positively charged ions.
  12. valence
    outermost shell around the nucleus.
  13. acids
    one of 3 electrolytes.  release H+ in water.  proton donors.  
  14. bases
     1 of 3 electrolytes. realease ions that bind to H+ in water (OH-) proton acceptor.  
  15. salts
    one of 3 electrolytes. formed when acid and base race and produce water.  when dissolved in water they produce anions and cations but no H or OH.  
  16. enzymes
    a substance that accelerates chemecal reactions; organic catalyst, usually a protein. 
  17. ionic bond
    attraction of a positively charged atom and a negatively charged atom 
  18. covalent bond
    sharing of electron pairs. formed by the atoms of molecules sharing one, two, or three pairs of the valence electrons.  common, and the strongest chemical bonds in the body.  
  19. polar covalent bond
    atoms unequally sharing electrons
  20. nonpolar covalent bond
    atoms equally sharing electron pairs. 
  21. hydrogen bond
    weak bonds formed between Hydrogen and another atom. found in water, DNA double helix.  
  22. endergonic reaction
    requires that energy be added to form a bond
  23. exergonic reaction
    the bond being broken has more energy than the one formed so that extra energy is released, usually as heat. 
  24. solution
    a substance called the solvent dissolves another subsrance call the solute and makes a solution. 
  25. suspension
    suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time, but it will eventually settle out.  heterogeneous mixtures.  blood, tomato juice. 
  26. colloid
    homogeneous mixtures containing intermediate particle size.  milk, fog. 
  27. what does it mean when we say an atom is electrically neutral?
    number of electrons (-) = number of protons (+)
  28. what does the 12, the 6, and the C tell you about this element
    the 12 is the atomic mass (protons + neutrons) 6 is the atomic number (number of protons) and C is the name of the  element. (Carbon)
  29. how do ionic and covalent bonds differ? Example?
    • Ionic bonds are the attraction of + charged atoms and - charged atoms.  covalent bonds are teh sharing of electrons.
    • sodium loses and electron to become Na+ and chloride gains an electron to become Cl- = NaCl table salt.  Oxygen has 8 electrons, 6 in second shell.  Two O molecules share 1 pair of electrons to have 8 in outer shell.   
  30. what are hydrogen bonds?
    a hydrogen forms when a hydrogen atam with a partial positive charge attracts the partical negative charge of a enighboring electronegative atom, most often larger oxygen or nitrogen atoms.  Hydrogen bonds are weak.  Cannot bind atoms into molecules however they do establish important links between molecules and between different parts of large moleculs such a a protein and nulceic acid.  
  31. what are the 6 characters of water?
    exccellent solvent and suspending medium, participates in hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions, serves as a lubricant.  Water molecules are cohesive (behcause of hydrogen bonds) which causes a high surface tension.  water also has a high capacity for absorbing heat and a high heat of vaporiztion. 
  32. buffer
    the chemical compounds that can convert strong acids or bases in weak ones. 
  33. organic molecule
    always contain carbon, usually contain hydrogen, and always have covalent bonds.  Most are large molecules and many are made up of long chains of carbon atoms.  
  34. macromolecule
    small organic molecules joined together through dehydration reactions. 
  35. polymer
    large molecule formed by the vocalent bonding of many identical or similar small building-block molecules. 
  36. monomer
    small building-block molecules.

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