Learning in Animals
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What is learning?
occurs between the perception of information (stimuli) by the sense organs and the ultimate storage of some part of that information in the brain
What is memory?
recollection and use of that information at a later time
What does memory involve?
recording, storage, and retrieval
What types of memory do we have?
short term and long term
Where does memory occur in the brain?
What are instincts?
genetic programs that animals are born with
Is a stimulus still required for instincts?
yes, stimulus is still required for an instinct to kick in
Instinctual behaviors are modified by _____.
What are the three parts of the learning process?
- classical conditioning
- operant conditioning
What is habituation?
- adapting animals at a young age to stimuli
- example: riding in the car, loud noises, people
What is another term for habituation?
What happens if we don't socialize an animal at a young age?
the animal develops anxiety and phobias
What is classical conditioning? Who was the theorist who discovered classical conditioning and how did he do it?
- innate reflex-like responses
- discovered by Pavlov
- dogs salivate when saw food, paired with ringing bell, removed food as stimulus, ringing bell still caused salivation
Classical conditioning is _____ stimulus paired with _____ stimulus
What is operant conditioning?
rewarding good behavior and vice versa
When using positive reinforcement, the reward must come within _____ of response.
What is negative reinforcement?
removing aversive stimulus incraeses chances of a response
Is negative reinforcement the same as punishment?
What is punishment?
aversive stimulus after unwanted act to stop behavior
When does punishment need to occur?
within 1 second after the act
What kinds of things can you do if an animal is caught in the act of doing something wrong?
- interrupt: use a sound or throw a soft object
- distract: call dog
- command: tell it to do something, praise if obeys
What are the 4 different types of behavior modification techniques?
- systematic desensitization
- counter conditioning
What is flooding?
- repeatedly presenting stimulus which causes anxiety
- stop the stimulus once the pet relaxes
Does flooding for work fear?
What is anxiety?
anticipation of danger from unknown
Wha is fear?
consciously recognized external threat
What is phobia?
persistent, excessive, irrational fear
What are some signs dogs show when they are anxious?
- ears back
- licking lips
What are some signs dogs show when they are showing fear?
- tail tucked
What are some signs dogs show when they are showing a phobia to something?
overreaction resulting in injury and destruction
How do we desensitize and animal?
- present in intensity which doesn't elicit fear
- gradually increase amount until the animal is no longer afraid
What is counter conditioning?
training a new response incompatible with the old one
When is counter conditioning used?
used to treat phobias and undesirable behaviors
What is extinction?
- occurs when behavior consistently is not rewarded
- used for unwanted learned behaviors
- intially the animal is more obnoxious
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