Phases of Anesthesia
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Phases of Anesthesia
What are the 5 different phases of anesthesia?
What do we need to do for patient assessment?
get a history
What do we look for in a history?
previous anesthesia episodes
medical problems that could affect anesthesia
What is the purpose of the physical exam?
assess current condition of patient
Why do we need a signalment?
different breeds may have different issues with anesthesia
What kinds of lab tests can we run for before anesthesia?
chem (pap or full panel)
clotting times (PT, PTT, ACT, BMBT)
UA (especially specific gravity)
What is the purpose of premeds?
helps decrease induction and maintenance meds
reduces pain (takes more meds to chase pain than to prevent it)
anxiety relief for patient, owner, and staff
reduces side effects of other drugs
What are the three types of premeds?
What are the three types of analgesics?
alpha 2 agonists
What are the different types of opioids?
Which opioids are mu agonists?
Which opioids are partial mu agonists?
Which opioids are kappa agonist/mu antagonists?
What is the onset time of buprenophine?
IV: 5 - 10 minutes
SQ and IM: 45 - 60 minutes
What is the indication for opioids?
analgesia first and then sedative
What is the duration of morphine, oxy, and hydro?
4 - 6 hours
What is the duration of the fentanyl patch?
What is the duration of buprenophine?
6 - 12 hours
What is the duration of burtorphanol?
1 - 2 hours
What are the main side effects of opioids?
What is the duration for carprofen (Rimadyl, Novox)?
12 - 24 hours
What is the duration for meloxicam, deracoxiv, firocoxib, ketoprofen, etodolac, robenacoxib?
What are the different types of NSAIDS?
What is the side effects of NSAIDS during anesthesia?
renal perfusion - need to maintain using fluids
monitor blood pressure for hypotension
What are the alpha 2 agonists?
What are the side effects of alpha 2 agonists?
What are the main types of sedatives?
alpha 2 agonist opioid
What is the phenothiazine tranquilizer we use?
What are the benzodiazepines that we use?
What are the alpha 2 agonists we can use for sedatives?
What are the side effects of phenothiazine tranquilizers (acepromazine)?
hypotension and hypothermia due to vasodilation
What side effect are we concerned with when using diazepam?
What are the different types of anticholinergics?
What do anticholinergics do?
increase heart rate
Which anticholinergic has a quicker onset time?
Which anticholinergic has a longer duration?
glycopyrrolate (1.5 - 2 hours)
atropine only lasts for 1 hour
What is the side effect of anticholinergics?
What are the different induction agents?
What are the different inhalants?
What are the different dissociatives?
What is tiletamine?
What are the different barbiturates?
What is the duration of propofol?
very short - 5 minutes
What are the side effects of propofol?
What do we have to do when administering propofol?
What is the onset time for inhalants as an induction agent?
onset depends on the premeds and size of patient
What can the patient go through when masking them down with inhalants?
can go through the excitement phase
What are the side effects of using inhalants as an induction agent?
unable to secure an airway right away
Do we titrate inhalants when we are using them as an induction agent?
What do we usually combine ketamine with when using it as an induction agent?
Which dissociative is safer, ketamine/diazepam or Telazol?
Do dissociatives have a lot of side effects? What are the side effects?
increased heart rate, increased cardiac output
Do we have to titrate dissociatives when using them as an induction agent?
What are the side effects of barbiturates?
major apnea (lasting 20 minutes)
Do we need to titrate barbiturates?
What do we use for maintenance?
inhalants or CRIs
What does CRI stand for?
constant rate infusion
Why do we usually use inhalants as maintenance?
east to titrate
What can we use as CRIs?
What do we combine with ketamine for maintenance?
MLK - morphine, lidocaine, ketamine
put in an IV bag to have it constantly flowing in
What can dissociatives cause?
What is pulse dosing?
give them more when they start to wake up (we do this if we were using propofol)
What is the primary goal for recovery?
have a smooth recovery
What is the secondary goal for recovery?
avoid a prolonged recovery
What are the reversable drugs for the alpha 2 agonists?
What is the reversing agent for opioids?
What is the reversing agent for benzodiazepines?
What is tramadol?
synthetic opioid like drug
What is the duration of tramadol?
8 - 12 hours
What are considered controlled drugs?
What are the 4 analgesics that we can use other than for premeds?
alpha 2 agonists