NS 71: The Cortex

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dvb69339
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NS 71: The Cortex
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2010-04-29 20:56:34
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Neuroscience
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Neuroscience Week 7
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  1. What are the two main subdivisions of the cortex?
    • Allocortex
    • Neocortex
  2. What are the two subdivisions of the Allocortex and what does each contain?
    • Paleocortex: olfactory tubercle, piriform cortex
    • Archicortex: hippocampus, amygdala
  3. Part of the Archicortex of the Allocortex is the hippocampus. What are the 3 layers of the hippocampus?
    • Dendrites
    • Pyramidal Cell Bodies
    • Axons
  4. NEOCORTEX Layer 1
    Name
    Cell Type
    Function
    • Molecular Layer
    • Axons, dendrites
    • Recieves Input
  5. NEOCORTEX Layer 2
    Name
    Cell Type
    • External Granule Layer
    • Small Round Cells
  6. NEOCORTEX Layer 3
    Name
    Cell Type
    Function
    • External Pyramidal Layer
    • Small Pyramidal Cells
    • Projects
  7. NEOCORTEX Layer 4
    Name
    Cell Type
    Function
    • Internal Granule Layer
    • Small Round Cells
    • Non-existent in motor cortex, very large in sensory cortices
  8. NEOCORTEX Layer 5
    Name
    Cell Type
    Function
    • Internal Pyramidal Layer
    • Large Pyramidal Cells
    • Projects
  9. NEOCORTEX Layer 6
    Name
    Cell Type
    Function
    • Polymorphic Layer
    • Heterogeneous cells, fibers, blends into white matter
    • Projects and recieves input
  10. How is the NeoCortex Organized?
    • anatomical as well as functional
    • ALSO know that the somatosensory and auditory cortices are organized like columns found in visual cortex
  11. What is the primary cortex?
    • Where the sensory information comes in and/or where the motor information leaves the cortex
    • If any deficits happen here, you will know about them
  12. What is the Association Cortex?
    • Where the information gets put together
    • Deficits here are discrete, subtle, and require specialized tests
  13. What is an example of a global function of the Neocortex?
    learning/memory
  14. What is an example of a site specific function of the global cortex?
    face recognition
  15. What is the difference between the unimodal areas and multimodal areas of the association cortex?
    • The unimodal areas are right next to primary areas and when you injure them, the deficits are obvious
    • The multimodal areas make up most of the cortex and are the prefrontal, parietla and temporal cortices. Deficits in these are not so obvious.
  16. What connects the association cortices together?
    • Corpus Callosum
    • Superior orbitofrontal fasciculus
    • Arcuate fasciculus
    • Inferior Occipoitofrontal Fasciculus
    • Uncinate Fasciculus
  17. What is the dominant hemisphere in most people?
    Left Hemisphere
  18. How do you determine what hemisphere is dominant and what hemisphere is non-dominant in a patient?
    • The Wada Test: inject Barbituates into Interal Carotid
    • Skilled motor tasts using both sides, speech, and language are controlled by the dominant side
  19. What are the functions of the non-dominant hemisphere?
    • complex visual-spatial skills
    • sense of direction
    • prosody (rhythym of speech)
    • emotional significance
    • music perception
  20. Somatosensory Cortex
    Input
    Location
    Special Notes
    • from Thalamus VPL, VPM
    • Post-Central Gyrus
    • homunculus representation, 3 parallel cortical maps
  21. What happens when there is a lesion in the Somatosensory Cortex?
    • Sensory Deficits: contralateral loss of discriminative touch, joint position sense
    • Accompanied by agraphesthesia (cannot recognize letter written in palm), astereoagnosia (keys in pocket), extinction (contralateral loss of touch when simultaneous stimulation)
  22. Somatosensory Association Cortex
    Location
    Parietal Lobe behind the Post-Central Gyrus
  23. Motor cortex
    Location
    Motor Homunculus
    • Pre-Central gyrus
  24. What do lesions in the motor cortex result in?
    UMN disease (paralysis/weakness, hyperreflexia, increased reflex tone)
  25. Pre-Motor Cortex
    Location
    Ahead of the Pre-Cenral Gyrus
  26. What is the result of a lesion in the pre-motor cortex?
    Apraxia: inability to execute skill/learned movements.....how frusturating!
  27. What two parts of the eye cortex control eye movements?
    • Frontal Eye Fields: contralateral saccades and projects to the superior colliculus
    • Parieto-Occipito-Temporal: Ipsilateral Smooth Pursuit
  28. What does a bilateral lesion of the auditory cortex cause?
    • cortical deafness: react to stimulus, but do not realize it
    • aphasia
  29. Auditory Cortex
    location
    temporal lobe
  30. Visual Cortex
    location
    calcarine fissure/occipital lobe
  31. What do unilateral lesions cause in the visual cortex? Bilateral lesions?
    • unilateral lesions: homonymous visual feild defects or scotomas (small defects)
    • Bilateral lesions: cortical blindness with anosognosia (denies disability)
  32. What is apraxia?
    inability to preform learned, skilled movements
  33. Where would a lesion have to be to lead to apraxia?
    • supplementary motor area
    • corpus callosum
    • parietal lobe
    • cerebellum
  34. What is aphasia?
    Disturbances in ability to communicate excluding deafness, impairments to vision, or vocal cord function
  35. What are the characteristics of Broca's aphasia?
    • loss of fluency
    • telegraphic speech
    • distorted speech sounds,but words are correct
  36. What are the characteristics of Wernicke's Aphasia?
    fluent, un-intelligble speech, including paraphasias (wrong word or phoneme)
  37. What connects Wernicke's area and Broca's area?
    arcuate fasciculus
  38. What is the difference between conduction aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia?
    • Conduction Aphasia there is comprehension intact
    • lesion is behind temporal lobe
  39. What are the characteristics of Transcortical Aphasia?
    non-fluent speech, but repitition is spared
  40. What causes Global Aphasia?
    Massive damage in the MCA on the left side
  41. What are the 4 characteristics of global aphasia?
    • speech comprehesion blocked
    • speech articulation blocked
    • automatic speech only
    • usually accompanied by right sided facial weakness
  42. Inferior Occipito-Temporal Cortex
    Location
    Function
    • Inferior Occipio-temoral cortex
    • Face Recognition/association of color
  43. What is the purpose of the frontal lobe? What are they important for?
    • They are the major assocation cortex-- interconnections with most of the rest of the brain
    • Restraint, initiative, order
  44. What are two frontal lobe syndromes?
    • Orbitofrontal
    • Dorsolateral prefrontal
  45. What does a lesion in the orbitofrontal portion of the frontal lobe cause?
    • behavioral disinhibition
    • hyperkinesia
    • disruption of social behavior
  46. What does a leasion in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of the frontal lobes cause?
    • psychomotor retardation
    • hypokinesia
    • Abulia: lack of initiative
  47. What is Balint's Syndrome?
    • a bilateral lesion in the Dorsolateral Parieto-Occipital Cortex
    • causes simultagnosia which is imparied ability to perceive a whole visual scene as a whole, optic ataxia which is impaired ability to reach for objects under visual guidance, ocular apraxia which is impaired ability to direct gaze through saccades
  48. Where is the knowledge of body in space located?
    Posterior Parietal Cortex
  49. What happens if you have a right sided lesion of the posterior parietal cortrex?
    • left sensory neglect
    • you might run your left side into a door! or swear someone else is in your bed
  50. What can cause recovery of loss of some symptoms after a stroke?
    Cortical Plasticity
  51. What lies in the future for Adult CNS Neurogenesis?
    Well, we used to think that no new neurons were created after birth, but this is likely wrong and in the future Neurogenesis might be possible.

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