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2012-08-29 17:32:00


CHAPTERS 1 & 2 Body organization and Chemistry
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  1. What is Anatomy?
    • The study of structure
    • -what it looks like
    • -where it is found
  2. What is Physiology?
    • The study of function
    • how something works
    • what happens chemically to make it work
  3. What is the first level of structual organization?
    • Atoms-simplest building blocks
    • molecules-interactions between molecules ex H2O
  4. What is the second level of structual organizaion?
    • Cells-basic unit of life
    • -do the work to keep us alive
    • -where chemicals interact
  5. What is the third level of structual organization?
    • group of like cells w/ a common function
    • 4 types: epithelial (covers and lines cavities), muscle (movement), connective (supports and protects), nervous (communication through electrical impulses)
  6. What is the fourth level of structual organization?
    • Two or more tissues performing a function ex: stomach
  7. What is the fifth level of structual organization?
    • 11 organ systems
    • maintains life 
    • groups of organs working together to perform common functions
    • integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive
  8. What is the sixth level of organizational structure?
    • all structual levels working together to sustain life ex: jogging
  9. How many levels of structual organization are there? List them in order.
    six, chemical, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organismal
  10. What are the 11 organ systems?
    Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, cardiovasuclar, urinary and reproductive
  11. What is the primary function of the integumentary system?
    (skin) Protects deeper organs from mechanical, chemical, and bacterial injury, and drying out, discretes salts, aids in body tem, produces vitamin D
  12. What is the primary function of the skeletal system?
    body support and protection of internal organs
  13. What is the primary function of the muscular system?
  14. What is the primary function of the nervous system?
    communication through electrical impulses
  15. What is the primary function of the endocrine system?
    helps maintain homeostasis, produces hormones, promotes growth and development
  16. What is the primary function of the cardiovascular system?
    transport system of blood containg nutrients, waste, etc
  17. The primary function of the Lymphatic system?
    (spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes) picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood, cleanses blood of pathogens and other debris, houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances
  18. What is the primary function of the respiratory system?
    keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon diioxide, contributes to the acid-base balance of the blood via its carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
  19. What is the primary function of the Digestive system?
    breaks down indigested foods to minute particles which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells
  20. What is the primary function of the urinary system?
    rids the body of nitrogen containing wastes, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids by body cells, maintains water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood
  21. What is the primary function of the reproductive system?
    • provides sperm for perpetuation of the species in men
    • provides eggs, and a uterus to house the developing fetus in birth, includes mammary glands to provide nutrition to infant
  22. Describe anatomical position.
    • facing forward (towards you)
    • palms facing forward
    • Their R to L
    • Standing upright
  23. Anterior/ posterior?
  24. Superior/anterior
  25. Medial/lateral
    Towards the middle/outer 
  26. proximal/distal
    closer to/ further away
  27. superficial/deep
    close to surface/deep 
  28. What are the three planes?
    • Frontal/coronal
    • Sagittal
    • transverse
  29. Frontal/coronal
    • front/back
    • anterior/posterior
  30. sagittal
    Right and left
  31. Transverse
  32. Locate and identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions 
    • DORSAL:
    • cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
    • cranial cavity-brain
    • vertebral cavity- spinal cord
    • VENTRAL:
    • Abdomino-pelvic 
    • -abdominal cavity-digestive visera
    • pelvice-urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
    • Thoratic- chest heart and lungs
  33. Identify the nine regions and the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.
    • 9- RT hypo chondriac, epi gastric, LFT hypo chondriac
    • right lumbar, umbillical, left lumbar
    • RT iliac, hypo gastric, LFT Iliac

    • 4-RT upper, LFT upper
    • Rt lower, LFT lower quadrant
  34. What organs are in the RT hypochondria?
    liver, gall bladder
  35. What organs are in the epigastric region?
  36. What organs in the lft hypochondriac region?
  37. what organs in the RT lumbar region?
    ascending colon of the large intestine
  38. What organ in the umbilical region?
    transverse colon of lg intestine, small intestine
  39. What organ in the lft lumbar region?
    descending colon of large intestine
  40. What organ in the RT iliac region?
    cecum, appendix
  41. What organ in the hypogastric region?
    urinary bladder
  42. Left Iliac
    inital part of sigmond colon
  43. define homeostasis.
    • stable internal environment
    • -healthy blood pressure, temp, blood sugar etc.
    • control mechanisms-feedback loops to maintain homeostasis
    • set point-range normal body temp  98.6
  44. What is the relationship between imbalance and disease and homeostasis?
  45. describe atomic strucute using 
    -energy level
    • electron= negative charge orbits nucleus
    • proton=positive charge within nucleus
    • neutron= neutral charge within nucleus
    • nucleus=contains protons and neutrons
    • energy level=depends on electrons?
    • isotope=
  46. What is an ionic bond?
    Where electrons are transferred
  47. What is a covalent bond?
    electrons are shared
  48. what is a polar molecule?
    where electrons arent shared equally resulting in partial charges
  49. what is a non-polar molecule?
    electrons shared equally ex: lipids
  50. Define metabolism
    all chemical reactions in the body
  51. what is a cation?
    a positive charge
  52. what is an anion?
    a negative charge