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Would it be a good idea for neurons to have GLUT 4 receptors?
No, because neurons need to have the energy to function at all times. Sometimes, there is no time for them to wait for the whole hormone process.
Instead, they have GLUT 3s.
What happens if B-cells secrete too much insulin? Can this happen?
Yes, it's called developing insulin resistance. Building too much energy storage is also a possibility.
What happens if a diabetic person injects her morning insulin and hasn't eaten anything yet?
Hypoglycemia - too much insulin lowers blood sugar too much! Hypoglycemic shock.
Define insulin resistance. Which tissues are affected and how? (4)
Insulin resistance - more insulin than normal is needed to maintain normal serum glucose levels.
- 1) Muscle - uptakes and uses less glucose.
- 2) Liver - no insulin to inhibit glycogenolysis, so increases serum glucose levels.
- 3) B-cells - increases insulin secretion to meet requirements until impairment
- 4) Adipocytes - abnormal lipolysis.
What are insulin's actions on:
Carbs M (3, 2)
Lipids M(4, 1)
Proteins M (2,0)
M = main purpose
- Carbs: Decrease glucose serum levels
- (1) Increase glucose uptake & glycogen synthesis in liver and glycogen synthesis in muscle
- (2) Decrease glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
- Lipids: Increase energy storage
- (1) Increase FAs and TAG synthesis by liver and fat tissue
- (2) Decrease of lipolysis
- Proteins: Anabolic
- (1) Increase uptake of AA into cells and protein synthesis
What hormones will be present under fasting conditions?