Anatomy part 2

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daniellemarie
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168042
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Anatomy part 2
Updated:
2012-08-29 20:51:41
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anatomy
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anatomy
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  1. what is 4% of the human body made up of?
    less and trase elements
  2. What are the four different ways to use radioisotopes?
    • medical testing
    • cellular tracers
    • biochemical analysis
    • cancer treatments
  3. what makes up 96% of the human body?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • oxygen
    • nitrogen
  4. what is considered the universal solvent
    water
  5. what is vital for chemical reactions to take place
    water
  6. how does water keep our body temperature within a normal range
    absorbs and releases heat slowly
  7. what does water need in order to change states of matter
    a lot of energy
  8. what is a major component of bodily fluids that allow molecule moement and act as a lubicant?
    water
  9. What are fluids outside the cell that contain gases, nurtients, and ions needed to maintain life called?
    extracellular
  10. Where does ECF go to after it circulates throuh the blood and lymphatic vessels
    spaces between the cells
  11. what is ECF called internal environment?
    its in constant montion inside the body to maintain homeostasis
  12. what are extracellular fluids found in the microscopic spaces between cells called?
    interstitial
  13. what is the extracellular fluids found in blood vessels called
    plasma
  14. what is the extracellular fluids found in lymphatic vessels called
    lymph
  15. what is the fluid inside a cell called
    intracellular/cytoplasm
  16. what is it called when substances move across the cell membrane without the use of cellular energy
    passive transport
  17. what are moleucle in solutions constantly moving
    kinetic energy
  18. what is the constant mtotion of molecules affected by
    • solute and solvent molecule concentration
    • temperature increase, molecular motion increases
    • pressures exerted by gravity and other forces
  19. what type of transport do molecules move from an are of high to low concentration
    passive
  20. what is it called when substances move across the cell membrane through the use of ATP
    active transport
  21. what type of transport do molecules move from area of low to high concentration
    active
  22. why is ATP good for the body
    burns cool
  23. why is glucose bad for the body
    burns hot
  24. what is ATP need for
    • muscle contraction
    • protein synthesis
    • DNA replication
    • membrand transport
  25. what is the ration comparison of solute molecules between the cell and its environment called
    tonicity
  26. what is it called when theres lower concentration
    hypotonic
  27. what is it called when theres higher concentration
    hypertonic
  28. what is it called when theres equal concentration
    isotonic
  29. what type of membrane trasonport is the movement of solutes from high to low concentration
    simple diffusion
  30. what type of membrane transport is the movement of fats, oxygen, carbon dioxide through the lipid portion and ions through the protein channel
    simple diffusion
  31. what type of membrane transport is the simple diffuision with diffusing a substance attached to a lipid-soluble membrane carrier protein
    faciliated
  32. what time of membrane transport is the movement of glucose into cell via a carrier molecule
    faciliated diffusion
  33. what type of membrane transport is the simple diffuision of water through a selective permeable membrane
    osmosis
  34. what type of membrane transpot is the movement of water into and out of cells via membrane pores
    osmosis
  35. what type of membrane transport is the simple diffusion in which large molecules cannot pass through a small membrane pore but smalll molecules can
    dialysis
  36. what type of membrane transport is the movement of small moeluces through small pores
    dialysis
  37. what type of membrane transport is the movement of water and solutes through a semipermeable membrane from an area of greater to lower hydrostatic pressure gradient
    filtration
  38. what type of membrane transport is the movement of water, nutrients, and gases through a capillary wall
    filtration
  39. what type of membrane transport uses hydrostatic pressure
    filtration
  40. what type of membrane transport is the movement of a substance through a membrane agaisnt concentration of electrochemical gradient and requires a carrier protein
    active transport
  41. what type of membrane transprot is the movement of amino acids and most ions acros a cell membrane
    active transport
  42. what type of membrane transport is the movement of larger molecules and dissolved substances into the cell
    endocytosis
  43. what type of membrane transport is the movement of large external substances into the cell via the membrane enclosures
    phagocytosis
  44. what type of membrane transport is the movement of large fluid droplet or dissolved substance via membrane enclosures
    pinocytosis
  45. what type of membrane transport occurs in most cells, important for taking in solutes by absorbtion
    pinocytosis
  46. what type of membrane transport has selective endocytosis where external substances bind to membrane receptors and coated pits are formed
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  47. what type of membrane transport is a way to take in slected hormones, cholesterol, iron and other molecules
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  48. what type of membrane transport is the secretion or ejection of a substance from a cell
    exocytosis
  49. what are the types of passive transport
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitated
    • osmosis
    • dialysis
    • filtration
  50. what are the types of active transport
    • endocytosis
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
    • receptor-mediated endocytosis
    • exocytosis
  51. what is the process called when DNA makes identical copies of itself to control daughter cells
    dna replication
  52. what does DNA mean
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  53. what is the process of making new cellular porteins called
    protein synthesis
  54. what phases does protein synthesis take place
    • transcripiton
    • translation
  55. what is the process of DNA making RNA and occurs exclusively in the nucleus in the cell called
    transcription
  56. what is a transcribed copy of direnction form DNA on how to make proteins called
    mRNA
  57. what are complementary nucelotides read in multiples of 3 that are the transcribed directions called
    codons
  58. what is a T-shaped molecule that tansfers amino acids found floating freely in the cytoplasm to the ribosome
    tRNA
  59. what is a sequence of 3 nucleotides that are complementary to 3 nucleotides found on mRNA called
    anticodons
  60. what is the major structural material of a ribosome, which is the site of protein synthesis
    rRNA
  61. what is the process of RNA assembling proteins and occurs in the cytoplasm called
    translation
  62. how does DNA make RNA
    transcription
  63. how does RNA make proteins
    translation
  64. how long is the average human protein
    100 amino acids
  65. why are cells made every second of our lives
    growth and repair of tissues
  66. what are the 3 major phases of a cells life cycle
    • interphase
    • mitosis
    • cytokinesis
  67. what is the longest part of the cells life cylce
    interphase
  68. what phase of the cells cycle is where grows in size
    interphase
  69. during what phase of a cells life cycle is the cell perfroming its normal day to day functions such as digestion, energy usage, immunity, etc
    interphase
  70. when does the cell prepare for division by doublign its cell contents and DNA
    end of interphase
  71. what phase of a cells cycle is the cell process of producing two identical muclei from one nucleus
    mitosis
  72. what phase of the cells cycle is when DNA condenses into thicker, visible strands of DNA
    prophase
  73. what phase of the cells cycyle is where the identical DNA copied strands connect via a centromere to form a chomrosome
    prophase
  74. what phase of the cells cycle is wehre the nucleolus and nuclear membrane disassembel and visually disapper
    prophose
  75. what phase of the cells life cycle is where the spindle apparatus begins forming from disassembling cytoskeleton
    prophase
  76. what phase of a cells cycle is where chromosomes are moved along spindle fibers to the middle of the cell
    metaphase
  77. what phase of the cells cycle is where centromeres split dividing the indentical copies of DNA to each end or pole of the cell
    anaphase
  78. what phase of the cells cycle are where chromosomes being to uncoil allowing protein synthesis to occur agian
    telephase
  79. what phase of the cells cycle is where the nucleolus and nuclear membrane reassemble and vissually reapper
    telephase
  80. what phase of the cells cycle is where the spindle apparatus disassembles to reform the cytoskeletons
    telephase
  81. what phase of the cells life cycle forms a cleavage furrow
    telephase
  82. what is the end result of telophase and mitosis
    equal division of nuclear material, mainly chromosomes
  83. what phase of the cells cycle is weher the cleavage furrow deepends and splits the cytoplasm in two
    cytokinesis
  84. what is the end result of cytokinesis
    two identical cells with an equal amount of cytoplasm and chromosomes
  85. what is the increase of cell size, which increases tissue size, without cell division called
    hypertrophy
  86. what is the decrease in the size of individual cells and decreasing in the size of tissue called
    atrophy
  87. what is muscle increation called
    hypertrophy
  88. what is muscle decreation called
    atrophy
  89. what is the increase in cell division which results in the increase of cell number and tissue size called
    hyperplasia
  90. what is a response to changes in the body's internal environment which may be normal or abnormal called
    hyperplasia
  91. what type of hyperplasia is increasing the number of milk producing cells in the female's breast during pregnancy
    normal
  92. what type of hyperplasisa is the increasing number of cells due to uncontrolled cell division, resulting in a tumor called
    abnormal
  93. what are caused by abnormal hyperplasis and may or may nnot be harmful
    tumor/neoplasm
  94. what type of tumor is usually a harmless cellular growth that do not move to other parts of the body or alter the function of neighboring cells
    benign
  95. how can a benign tumor turn harmful
    gets too large and impedes a passageway or push on a blood vessel or nerve
  96. what type of tumor is harmful and alters the funtion of neighboring cells and can spread to other areas of the body
    malignant
  97. what is it called when something can spread to other areas of the body
    metastasis
  98. what are a group of diffenent cell types that work together to perfrom a relatively limited number of specific functions called
    tissues
  99. what are the four types of tissue
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  100. what is the study of tissues called
    histology
  101. what is the ability of a tissue to repair itself called
    regeneration
  102. what type of tissue covers all exposed surfaces
    epithelial
  103. what type of tissue lines all interanl passages, cavities, chambers, and tubes
    epithelial
  104. what type of tissue forms glands
    epithelial
  105. what type of tissue are cells packed close together, that don't contain blood vessels, and possesses very little extracellular material
    epithelial
  106. what type of tisse has high regenration abilites
    epithelial
  107. what are the funcitons of epithelial tissue
    • absorbtion
    • secretion
    • filtration
    • portection
    • excretion
    • surface transport
    • sensory functions
  108. what function if the passive or active movement of gases, fluids, or solutes across a cell membrane
    absorbiton
  109. what function is passie or active movement of a substance out of a cell
    secretion
  110. what function if th emovement of water and solutes through a membrane via hydrostatic pressure
    filtration
  111. what function is that epithelial covers the body and lines all cavities to protect from foregin microbes, chemicals, physical injury, and water loss
    protection
  112. what function is ridding of the body of metabolic wastes
    excretion
  113. what function is the movemtn of materials by cells that contain cillia
    surface transport
  114. what function is where most epithelial cells are innervated by sensory neurons to detect changes in either the internal or external environment
    sensory functions
  115. what type of epithlial cells are flat
    squamous
  116. what type of epithelial cells are cubed or squared
    cubodial
  117. what type of epithelial cells are higher than they are wide
    columnar
  118. what arrangement of epithelial cells are a single layer
    simple
  119. what arrangement of epithelial cells are many layers of the same shaped cell
    stratified
  120. what arrangement of epithelial cells are many layers with different shaped cells
    transitional
  121. what are cells that are usually cuboidal in shape and funciton in secretion called
    glandular epithelium
  122. what type of cell produces and realeses secretion through ducts to specific body parts
    exorine
  123. what type of cell produces and releases hormones into the blood to be transported to the entire body
    endocrine
  124. what type of tissue is the most abundant and most diverse tissue in the human body
    connective
  125. what type of tissue are relatively few cells with intercelluar matrix
    connective
  126. what type of tissue has high regeneration abilites
    connective
  127. what function of connective tissue is physically protects soft internal organs, protect bone to bone contact, and protects the brain and spinal cord from microorganisms
    protection
  128. what function of connective tissue serves to give organs their shape
    support
  129. what function of connective tissue is long term energy storage
    energy storage
  130. what function of connective tissue keeps body heat from escaping
    insulation
  131. what function of connective tissue moes materials throughout the body
    internal transport
  132. what funcitno of connective tissue serves to connect body parts
    connection
  133. what function of connective tissue is the formation of new blood cells
    hemopoeisis
  134. what type of tissue is specialized tissue that contracts for body movements
    muscle
  135. what type of tissue protects interanl body structures
    muscle
  136. what type of tissue has low regeneration abilities
    muscle
  137. what are the 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  138. what type of muscle tissue is the most common and found connected to bones for voluntary body movement
    skeletal
  139. what type of muscle tissue has involuntary contraction and blood movement
    cardiac
  140. what type of muscle tissue is found in blood vessels, intestines, uterus, etc and for involuntary movements of bood food..
    smooth
  141. what type of tissue allows for communication, control, and intergration
    nervous
  142. what type of tissue has low regeneration abilities
    nervous
  143. what type of nervous tissue are cells that communicate, control, and integrate bodily functions
    neurons
  144. what type of nervous tissue are cells that support, connect, and protect neurons
    glia
  145. what are combos of different tissues that perfrom complex functions
    organs
  146. what are an interactiong group of organs that perfrom specific functions called
    systems

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