Previous Sections Grammar

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mpj4321
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168046
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Previous Sections Grammar
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2012-08-29 23:39:12
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Previous Sections Grammar
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Previous Sections Grammar
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  1. to wake up
    despertarse (ie)
  2. to have fun
    divertirse (ie)
  3. to get dresssed (full conjugation)
    vestir: visto, vistes, viste, vestemos, vestís, visten
  4. to give (full conjugation)
    (Dar) Doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan 
  5. to say, tell (full conjugation)
    (decir) digo dices dice decimos decís dicen 
  6. Should / ought to
    deber (should, ought to)
  7. need to
    necesitar (to need to)
  8. Expressing Plans / Desires: (to think that)
    pensar que
  9. Expressing Plans / Desires:(to think about, have an opinion of )
    pensar de
  10. Expressing Plans / Desires: (to think about someone or something, have one’s thoughts on)
    pensar en
  11. Would Like (2 words)
    Quisiera and me (le) gustaría
  12. Forms of Quisiera
    quisiera, quisieras, quisiera quisiéramos quisierais quisieran
  13. Forms of gustaría
    gustaría te gustaría le gustaría nos gustaría os gustaría les gustaría
  14. older
    mayor
  15. younger
    menor
  16. Comparisons of Equality: Qualities
    (no) tan... como
  17. Comparisons of Equality: quantities
    (no) tanto... como
  18. Reflexive pronouns
    indicate that the subject of a sentence does something to himself or herself: Me, te, se, nos, os, se
  19. Indirect object pronouns
    indicating to whom something is said, told, explained, reported, asked, answered, and so on.*: me, te, le, nos, os, les
  20. Personal Direct Object Pronouns
    Referring to People already Mentioned: me, te, nos, os; lo, la, los, las
  21. The Preterite of Regular Verbs - ar
    -é, -aste, -ó, -amos, -asteis, -aron
  22. The Preterite of Regular Verbs - er/ir
    -í, -iste, -ió, -imos, -isteis, -ieron
  23. Misc Preterite Rules: If the stem of an -er/-ir verb ends in a vowel (le-er)
    the i of the -ió and -ieron endings changes to y in the preterite: oír: oí, oíste, oyó, oímos, oísteis, oyeron
  24. Irregular Preterite Rules: Ending of yo and usted, él/ella
    Unlike regular preterite verb endings, the endings of the yo and usted, él/ella forms are not stressed in the last syllable
  25. Irregular Preterite Rules: conducir, decir, traducir, and traer
    drop the i in the ustedes, ellos/as form
  26. Irregular Preterite Rules: dar and ver
    take the -er/-ir endings, but with no written accents
  27. Irregular Preterite Forms: to do
    (hacer) hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicisteis hicieron
  28. Irregular Preterite Forms: to come
    Venir: vine viniste vinó vinimos vininsteis vinieron
  29. Irregular Preterite Forms: to want
    Querer: quise quisiste quiso quisimos quisisteis quisieron
  30. Irregular Preterite Forms: to say
    Decir: dije dijiste dijo dijimos dijisteis dijeron
  31. Irregular Preterite Forms: to lead
    Conducir: conduje condujiste condujo condujimos condujisteis condujeron
  32. Irregular Preterite Forms: to translate
    Traducir: traduje tradujiste tradujo tradujimos tradujisteis tradujeron
  33. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: Rules
    Most cases the vowels of stem-changing verbs do not change in the preterite forms. A few, all in the -ir group, do change their stem vowel in the usted, él/ella and the ustedes, ellos/as forms of the preterite. 2 possible changes: E > I and o > u
  34. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to have a good time
    Divertirse: divertí divertiste divirtió divertimos divertisteis divirtieron
  35. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to sleep
    dormir: dormí dormiste durmió dormimos dormisteis durmieron
  36. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to fry
    Freír: Freí Freiste Freió Freimos Freisteis Freieron
  37. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to feel
    sentire
  38. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to suggest
    sugerir
  39. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to prefer
    preferir
  40. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to lie
    mentir
  41. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to lie
    morir
  42. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to order, to ask for
    pedir
  43. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to serve
    servir
  44. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to dress
    vestir
  45. Stem-Changing Verbs in the Preterite: to follow
    seguir
  46. These follow the samer patter, except that in 3rd-singular forms, one i is dropped
    to laugh Reír:(accent kept) Reí reíste río reímos reísteis rieron; to smile Sonreír: (accent kept) Sonreí sonreíste sonrío sonreímos sonreísteis sonrieron
  47. No I don't
    ¡A mí, no!
  48. I don't either
    A mí tampoco.
  49. Something
    algo
  50. nothing
    nada
  51. somebody
    alguien
  52. nobody
    nadie
  53. some
    Algún alguno/a/os/as (Algún for masculine singular nouns)
  54. none, no one
    ningún ninguno/a (de)
  55. Imperfect Tense: Rules
    Saying what you used to do (habitually or repeatedly
  56. Imperfect Tense: -ar
    • ●yo : -aba
    • ●tu : -abas
    • ●el ella usted : -aba
    • ●nos : -ábamos
    • ●vos : -abais
    • ●ustedes ellos/as : -aban
  57. Imperfect Tense: -er/ir
    • ●yo : -ía
    • ●tu : -íias
    • ●el ella usted : -ía
    • ●nos : -íiamos
    • ●vos : -íais
    • ●ustedes ellos/as : -ían
  58. for her
    para ella
  59. only 3 irregular verbs in imperfect
    • ● ir ser ver
    • ● (yo) iba era veía
    • ● (tú) ibas eras veías
    • ● (usted, él/ella) iba era veía
    • ● (nosotros/as) íbamos éramos veíamos
    • ● (vosotros/as) ibais erais veíais
    • ● (ustedes, ellos/as) iban eran veían
  60. verbs describing states or ongoing conditions
    are usually conjugated in the imperfect tense
  61. to convey that the state came to an end.
    state verbs in the preterite
  62. Present Perfect
    Saying What You Have Done: ●The present perfect is formed with the present tense of the verb haber* (to have) followed by a form of the verb called the past participle.
  63. Verb forms of haber
    He, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han
  64. Past participle : rules
    formed by adding -ado to the stem of -ar verbs and -ido to the stem of -er and -ir verbs.
  65. Past participle : to say / said; to tell / told
    decir: dicho
  66. Past participle : to write / written
    escribir: escrito
  67. Past participle : to do / done; to make / made
    hacer: hecho
  68. Past participle : to die / died; dead
    morir: muerto
  69. Past participle : to put / put
    poner: puesto
  70. Past participle : to solve / solved
    resolver: resuelto
  71. Past participle : to break / broken
    romper: roto
  72. Past participle : to return / returned
    volver: vuelto
  73. Para
    toward a destination; to indicate a deadline by which something is expected to happen.
  74. Por
    motion through or by (along) a place; to indicate means of transportation; to express during, in, or at with parts of the day
  75. adverbs
    Many adverbs are formed in Spanish by adding -mente to the feminine or neuter form of the adjective:
  76. to frighten
    dar miedo
  77. to attract attention
    llamar la atención
  78. to infuriate
    dar rabia
  79. to be pressing, really necessary
    urgir
  80. Giving polite commands
    formed by changing -ar verb endings to -e; -er and -ir endings change to -a. To give polite commands to more than one person, add -n.
  81. Giving polite commands: irregular/stems
    If a verb stem is irregular in the yo form of the present tense, it usually has the same irregularity in the command form
  82. Giving polite commands: pronouns
    Object pronouns and refl exive pronouns are attached to affi rmative commands and precede negative ones.
  83. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms: give
    dé (dar)
  84. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms: know
    sepa (saber)
  85. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms: be
    esté (estar)
  86. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms: go
    vaya (ir)
  87. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms: be
    sea (ser)
  88. Command stem changes: get/obtain
    conseguir (i): consiga
  89. Softening Commands
    Present Subjunctive follwing querer que and sugerir que
  90. Th e forms of the present subjunctive: -ar
    -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
  91. Th e forms of the present subjunctive: -er/-ir
    -a, -as, -a, -amos, áis, -an
  92. action or state described in a clause that begins with cuando refers to a habitual action
    present indicative
  93. the action or state described in a clause that begins with cuando refers to the future
    subjunctive form
  94. present subjunctive of: to pick
    recoger: recojo recoja, recojas, recoja, recojamos, recojáis, recojan
  95. Present subjunctive based on present indicative ending in oy in yo form
    Verbs that end in -oy in the yo form, as well as the verb saber, have irregular stems in the present subjunctive.*
  96. present subjunctive of: dar
    doy dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
  97. present subjunctive of: estar
    estoy esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén
  98. present subjunctive of: ir
    voy vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
  99. Present subjunctive based on present indicative with stem-vowel changes e y ie and o y ue
    keep those changes in the present subjunctive except for the nosotros/as and vosotros/as forms..
  100. Present subjunctive based on present indicative with stem-vowel changes e y I
    have the same stem-vowel change in all the present subjunctive forms.
  101. Imperfect Progressive
    Talking about past action in progress
  102. To describe an action that was taking place at some past moment,
    use the imperfect tense of estar (estaba, estabas, estaba, estábamos, estabais, estaban), followed by a present participle

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