Ch 12 Grammar

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  1. Expressing Existence:
  2. There is /are
  3. There was/were
    Hubo, había
  4. there is/are going to be
    va a haber
  5. there has/have to be, there must be
    tiene que haber
  6. when there is/are
    cuando haya
  7. Expressing Changes in States: become, get: ponerse
    (to get) most adjectives, such as contento/a, de mal (buen) humor, furioso/a, molesto/a, nervioso/a, serio/a, triste, and so on.
  8.  I became very happy when I read your letter.
    Me puse muy contenta cuando leí tu carta. 
  9. Expressing Changes in States: become, get: Use hacerse with
    bueno/a, malo/a, rico/a; all professions (abogado/a and so on); religions and political affi liations (católico/a and so on).
  10. Adela studied a lot and became a professor in three years.
    Adela estudió mucho y se hizo  profesora en tres años. 
  11. Expressing Changes in States: become, get: Use volverse with
    antipático/a (unfriendly), desobediente (disobedient), loco/a.
  12. Alberto is going to go crazy withall the work that he has.
    Alberto va a volverse loco con todo el trabajo que tiene. 
  13. ponerse alegre  
  14. ponerse enojado/a  
  15. ponerse delgado/a  
  16. ponerse gordo/a  
  17. ponerse enfermo/a  
  18. ponerse triste  
  19. Narrating Past Experiences: used to ask and answer a Have you ever . . . ?
  20. Narrating Past Experiences: It has no reference to the specifi c time in the past when an event occurred
  21. Have you ever in your life climbed a mountain?
    —¿Has escalado una montaña alguna vez en tu vida? 
  22. —Yes, I’ve climbed many mountains.
    —Sí, he escalado muchas montañas. 
  23. Narrating Past Experiences: It describes something you have or have not yet done.
  24. I have never ridden a horse, but tomorrow I am going to learn.
    Nunca he montado a caballo, pero mañana voy a aprender. 
  25. Narrating Past Experiences: describes things you used to do or would always do.
    The imperfect tense 
  26. As a little girl, I always used to play with my dolls on the patio.
    De niña, siempre jugaba con mis muñecas en el patio. 
  27. Narrating Past Experiences: It commonly describes states in the past.
    The imperfect tense 
  28. In kindergarten, I was a very curious little girl and was never afraid of anything.
    En el kínder, yo era una niña muy curiosa y nunca tenía miedo de nada.
  29. Narrating Past Experiences: It also describes what someone was doing or what was happening when something else interrupted the action.
    The imperfect tense 
  30. I was walking peacefully down the street when I heard the screams.
    Caminaba tranquilamente por la calle cuando oí los gritos. 
  31. Narrating Past Experiences: to describe completed events that are isolated in the past.
  32. Last night I went to the movies with my friends. We saw a very  boring movie. Afterward we ate pizza in an Italian restaurant.
    Anoche fui al cine con mis amigos. Vimos una película muy aburrida. Después comimos pizza en un restaurante italiano. 
  33. Narrating Past Experiences: To tell a story or relate past events ,
    the preterite forms are most frequently used: fui, comí, salí, bailé, me divertí, dormí, and so on.
  34. Narrating Past Experiences: usually describe the background or set the stage for the story
    Imperfect forms: vivía, jugaba, llovía, hacía calor.
  35. One night I was waiting (          ) at the bus stop on my way home fromwork. It was raining (           ) very hard, and I was (            ) very tired after a long, diffi cult day at work.
    Imperfect;  imperfect;  imperfect
  36. Suddenly, I saw (           ) the familiar face of my friend Ralph speed by in a new car. I waved (          ) to him, but he didn’t stop (          ). He sped (         ) on by without even a glance toward me. Th e bus arrived (        ) within a few minutes, and I boarded (         ).
    Preterite;  preterite;  preterite; preterite; preterite; preterite       
  37. I immediately noticed (     ) that the bus was (      ) full and that I had to (      ) stand. Many other people were standing (         ), too. Buses were (          ) always so crowded during rush hour in San Francisco.
    Preterite;  imperfect;  imperfect;  imperfect;  imperfect
  38. Finally we arrived (      ) at my stop. I quickly got off (         ) and walked (          ) home. Th e house was (          ) dark, but when I opened (           ) the door about fi fty people, including Ralph, shouted (         ) “Happy Birthday!” It turned out (              ) to be a very good day indeed!
    Preterite;  preterite;  preterite;  imperfect;  preterite; preterite;  preterite
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Ch 12 Grammar

Ch 12 Grammar
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