Verb Forms and Pronouns

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Verb Forms and Pronouns
2012-09-15 01:37:30
Verb Forms Pronouns

Verb Forms and Pronouns
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  1. Def: Reflexive Pronoun
    Indicate that the subject of a sentence does something to himself or herself
  2. Forms: Reflexive Pronoun
    me, te, se, nos, os, se
  3. Def: Indirect Object Pronoun
    indicating to whom something is said, told, explained, reported, asked, answered, and so on.
  4. When using le or les: Indirect Object Pronoun
    When using le or les, it is very common to use a phrase with a to specify the person (or thing) involved. Spanish requires the pronoun even when the phrase with a is used.
  5. Forms: Indirect Object Pronoun
    me, te, le, nos, os, les
  6. Def: Present Progressive
    Action in progress
  7. Forms: Present Progressive
    estar (to be) and an -ndo (-ing) form called a present participle.
  8. Forms: Present Participle
    • replace -ar of the infi nitive with -ando.
    • replace-er/-ir of the infinitive with -iendo/-yendo.
  9. Def: Personal Direct Object Pronouns
    Referring to People already Mentioned
  10. Forms: 4 personal direct object pronouns
    • me (me), te(you), nos (us), and os (you; inf. pl., Spain)
    • are the same as the reflexive pronouns and the indirect object pronouns
  11. Forms: 4 Impersonal direct object pronouns
    Lo – him, you; la – her, you; los – them, you(pl); las – them, you (pl, females only)
  12. Forms (ar): The Preterite of Regular Verbs
    -é, -aste, -ó, -amos, -asteis, -aron
  13. Forms (er/ir): The Preterite of Regular Verbs
    -í, -iste, -ió, -imos, -isteis, -ieron
  14. Deff: Misc Preterite Rules: If the stem of an -er/-ir verb ends in a vowel (le-er)
    the i of the -ió and -ieron endings changes to y in the preterite.
  15. Deff: The Imperfect Tense
    Saying what you used to do (habitually or repeatedly
  16. Forms -ar: The Imperfect Tense
    • yo : -aba
    • tu : -abas
    • el ella usted : -aba
    • nos : -ábamos
    • vos : -abais
    • ustedes ellos/as : -aban
    • -er/-ir
  17. Forms -er/ir: The Imperfect Tense
    • yo : -ía
    • tu : -íias
    • el ella usted : -ía
    • nos : -íiamos
    • vos : -íais
    • ustedes ellos/as : -ían
  18. Forms/Def: Irregular Verbs in Imperfect
    • ir ser ver
    • (yo) iba era veía
    • (tú) ibas eras veías
    • (usted, él/ella)iba era veía
    • (nosotros/as) íbamos éramos veíamos
    • (vosotros/as) ibais erais veíais
    • (ustedes, ellos/as) iban eran veían
  19. Def: Imperfect and Preterite of “State” Verbs
    • verbs describing states or ongoing conditions are usually conjugated in the imperfect tense
    • state verbs in the preterite, they usually do so to convey that the state came to an end.
  20. Deff: Ir in imperfect
    can be used in this construction to express past intentions (was/were going to do something).
  21. Deff: The Present Perfect
    Saying What You Have Done
  22. Form: The Present Perfect
    The present perfect is formed with the present tense of the verb haber* (to have) followed by a form of the verb called the past participle.
  23. Present forms of haber
    He, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han
  24. Past participle
    formed by adding -ado to the stem of -ar verbs and -ido to the stem of -er and -ir verbs.
  25. Past participle to do / done; to make / made
    hacer: hecho
  26. Past participleto die / died; dead
    morir: muerto
  27. Past participle to put / put
    poner: puesto
  28. Past participle to solve / solved
    resolver: resuelto
  29. Past participle to return / returned
    volver: vuelto
  30. Form: Giving polite commands
    formed by changing -ar verb endings to -e; -er and -ir endings change to -a. To give polite commands to more than one person, add -n.
  31. Irregulars: Giving polite commands
    If a verb stem is irregular in the yo form of the present tense, it usually has the same irregularity in the command form
  32. pronouns: Giving polite commands
    Object pronouns and refl exive pronouns are attached to affi rmative commands and precede negative ones.
  33. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms give
    dé (dar)
  34. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms know
    sepa (saber)
  35. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms be (estar)
    esté (estar)
  36. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms go
    vaya (ir)
  37. irregular command forms that do not match the first-person singular forms be (ser)
    sea (ser)
  38. Def/FormSoftening Commands
    Present Subjunctive follwing querer que and sugerir que
  39. Form -ar: The forms of the present subjunctive-
    -e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en
  40. Form -er/-ir: The forms of the present subjunctive-
    -a, -as, -a, -amos, áis, -an
  41. action or state described in a clause that begins with cuando refers to a habitual action
    present indicative
  42. the action or state described in a clause that begins with cuando refers to the future
    subjunctive form
  43. Forms: Present Subjunctive: dar
    doy dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
  44. Forms: Present Subjunctive: estar
    estoy esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén
  45. Forms: Present Subjunctive: ir
    voy vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
  46. Forms: Present Subjunctive: ser
    soy sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
  47. Forms: Present Subjunctive: saber
    sé sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
  48. Deff: Present subjunctive based on present indicative with stem-vowel changes
    • e to ie and o to ue: keep except nos and vos
    • e to i: keep for all
  49. Deff: Imperfect Progressive
    Talking about past action in progress
  50. Forms: Imperfect Progressive
    use the imperfect tense of estar (estaba, estabas, estaba, estábamos, estabais, estaban), followed by a present participle
  51. Def: Imperfect Vs Pret
    • preterite used with verbs of action to emphasize that a past event was completed.
    • imperfect the speaker wishes to emphasize that an action happened repeatedly in the past
  52. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: used to ask and answer a Have you ever . . . ?
  53. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: describes things you used to do or would always do.
    The imperfect tense
  54. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: It has no reference to the specifi c time in the past when an event occurred
  55. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: It commonly describes states in the past.
    The imperfect tense
  56. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: It also describes what someone was doing or what was happening when something else interrupted the action.
    The imperfect tense
  57. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: to describe completed events that are isolated in the past.
  58. The Present Perfect, Imperfect, and Preterite: To tell a story or relate past events
    • the preterite forms are most frequently used:
    • fui, comí, salí, bailé, me divertí, dormí, and so on.
  59. Deff: Demonstrative Pronouns
    When a demonstrative adjective (este, ese, aquel) functions as a noun, it is called a demonstrative pronoun.*
  60. Forms: Demonstrative Pronouns
    • (nearest) este/a, estos/as, … aquí
    • ese/a, esos/as… allí
    • (farthest) aquel/aquella, aquellos/as… allá
  61. Exchanging Items: Indirect Object Pronouns
    Certain verbs describe the exchange of items between persons: Normally these verbs are accompanied by indirect object pronouns (me, te, le, nos, os, and les) even when the person involved is specifi cally mentioned.
  62. Deff: Reciprocal Pronouns
    Expressing each other:
  63. Form: Reciprocal Pronouns
    • reciprocal actions are expressed in Spanish with refl exive pronouns. Context usually indicates whether the pronoun is refl exive (self ) or reciprocal (each other). reciprocal (each other)
    • (same form as refl exive): nos, os, se + verb
  64. Forms: Polite commands
    • -ar: yo form ending changes to e
    • -er/ir: yo form ending changes to a
    • same as present subjunctive
  65. If the singular informal command is affirmative,
    it is identical to the he/she form of the present indicative.
  66. the informal command is negative,
    add -s to the usted command form.
  67. irregular informal command say / don’t say
    decir di no digas
  68. irregular informal command do / don’t do
    hacer haz no hagas
  69. irregular informal command go / don’t go
    ir ve no vayas
  70. irregular informal command put / don’t put
    poner pon no pongas
  71. irregular informal command leave / don’t leave
    salir sal no salgas
  72. irregular informal command be / don’t be ser
    sé no seas
  73. irregular informal command have / don’t have
    tener ten no tengas
  74. irregular informal command come / don’t come
    venir ven no vengas
  75. Affi rmative vosotros/as commands
    • are derived from the infi nitive by changing the fi nal -r to -d.
    • hablar hablad no habléis
  76. Negative vosotros/as commands
    • use the subjunctive.
    • hablar hablad no habléis
  77. Using Softened Commands: The Subjunctive Mood
    The first clause contains a verb or a verb phrase indicating a desire, a recommendation, or a suggestion. Th e second begins with the connector que (that) and contains a verb in the subjunctive.
  78. to advise (that)
    aconsejar que
  79. to tell, order (that)
    decir que
  80. to allow (that)
    dejar que
  81. to desire (that)
    desear que
  82. to hope (that)
    esperar que
  83. to demand (that)
    exigir que
  84. to command (that)
    mandar que
  85. to ask, request that
    pedir (i) que
  86. to permit that
    permitir que
  87. to prefer that
    preferir (ie) que
  88. to prohibit that
    prohibir que
  89. to want that
    querer (ie) que
  90. to recommend (that)
    recomendar (ie) que
  91. to beg, plead that
    rogar (ue) que
  92. to suggest (that)
    sugerir (ie) que
  93. it is important that
    es importante que
  94. it is impossible that
    es imposible que
  95. it is better that
    es mejor que
  96. it is necessary that
    es necesario que
  97. it is preferable that
    es preferible que