Principles Chapter 11
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Differentiate between hermaphrodites, transsexuals, and transvestites.
- Hermaphrodite is a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.
- Transsexual is a person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are opposite from the physical sex organs of the person's body.
- Transvestite is a male who lives as a women or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia.
Differentiate between sex and gender roles.
- Sex refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.
- Gender roles refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
Define gender identity and body consciousness.
- Gender Identity is a person's perception of the self as female or male.
- Body consciousness is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body.
Explain why definitions of sex are not always clear-cut.
Distinguish between sex and gender and explain their sociological significance.
Sex refers to the biological categories and manifestations of femaleness and maleness; gender refers to the socially constructed differences between females and males. In short, sex is what we (generally) are born with; gender is what we acquire through socialization.
Outline the key assumptions of liberal, radical, socialist, and black (African American) feminism.
- In liberal feminism, gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.
- According to radical feminists, male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.
- Socialist feminists suggest that women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economy.
- Black feminism- a central assumption of this analysis is that race, class, and gender are forces that simultaneously oppress African American women.
Use examples to explain the feminist perspective on gender equality.
Explain some of the important ways that people "do"gender in their daily interactions.
Define sexism and explain how it is related to discrimination and patriarchy.
- Sexism is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
- Sexism directed at women had three components: (1) negative attitudes toward women; (2) stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice; and (3) discrimination � acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separate.
- Patriarchy is reflected in the way men may think of their position as men as a given whereas women may deliberate on what their position in society should be.
Trace gender stratification from early hunting and gathering societies until today.
- *Hunting and Gathering Societies
- -Men hunt, women gather - both hunt when near
- -A relatively equitable relationship exists because neither sex has the ability to provide all the food necessary for survival.
- -Women are full economic partners with men; relations between them tend to be cooperative and relatively equalitarian.
- -Little social stratification of any kind is found because people do not acquire a food surplus.
- *Horticultural and Pastoral societies
- -A steady source of food becomes available; people grow their own food because of hand tools
- -The domestication of large animal to provide food
- -In some herding societies, women have relatively low status; primarily value is ability to produce males to preserve family lineage and have enough to protect group
- -Fairly high degree of gender equality exists because neither sex controls the food supply
- *Agrarian Societies
- -Gender inequality and male dominance become institutionalized
- -Reasons for increased gender inequality: private ownership of property, acquire surplus
- -Importance of producing legitimate heirs to inherit the surplus increases and women's lives become more secluded and restricted as men attempt to ensure the legitimacy of their children. Premarital virginity and marital fidelity are required; indiscretions punished.
- Industrial Societies
- -Is one in which factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as the major form of economic activity.
- -As societies industrialize, the status of women tends to decline further.
- -Role of men and women - "breadwinners" "homemakers" "cult of domesticity" "cult of womanhood"
- -Increased white women's dependence on men
- -Women of color and white women - discriminized because had to work in order to survive, and also based on race
- Postindustrial Societies
- -As ones in which technology supports a service and information based economy
- -More headed by women with no adult male present.
Describe the process of gender socialization and identify specific ways in which parents, peers, teachers, sports, and mass media contribute to the process.
- We learn gender-appropriate behavior through the socialization process.
- Parents: From birth parents act towards children on the basis of gender labels; children�s clothing and toys are based on their parents' gender expectations, boys are treated more harshly, chores may also become linked with future occupational chores and personal characteristics, eating disorders may also be learned from parents.
- Peers: Help children learn prevailing gender-role stereotypes, as well as gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior. During adolescence peers are often stronger and more effective agents of gender socialization than adults. In college peer groups are organized largely around gender relations and play on relationships. The peer system propelled women into a world of romance in which their attractiveness to men counted most. Can develop eating disorders if too pressured by parents to be skinny.
- Teachers and schools: schools operate as a gendered institution. Teachers provide important messages about gender through both the formal content of classroom assignments and informal interactions with students. Some college instructors pay more attention to men than women in their classes. Women are undermined in school by (1) a relative lack of attention from teachers (2) sexual harassment by male peers (3) the stereotyping and invisibility of females in textbooks, especially science and math and (4) text bias based on assumptions about the relative importance of quantitative and visual - spatial ability as compared with verbal ability where girls typically excel.
- Women are more likely to earn a college degree and to have higher GPAs but are less likely to graduate from graduate school.
- Sports - Most sports are rigidly divided into female and male events, and funding of athletic programs is often unevenly divided between men�s and women's programs. Assumptions about male and female physiology and athletic capabilities influence the types of sports in which members of each sex are encouraged to participate.
- Mass Media - Powerful source of gender stereotyping, tv programs are more male oriented
Describe the relationship between gender roles, gender identity, and body consciousness.
Describe gender bias and explain how schools operate as a gendered institution.
- Gender bias consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other.
- Researchers consistently find that teachers devote more time, effort, and attention to boys than to girls. Males receive more praise for their contributions and are called on more frequently in class, even when they do not volunteer.
- The effect of gender bias is particularly problematic if teachers take a "boys will be boys" attitude when boys and young men make derogatory remarks or demonstrate aggressive behavior against girls and young women.
Trace changes in labor force participation by women and note how these changes have contributed to the "second shift."
Even with dramatic changes in women's workforce participation, the sexual division of labor in the family remains essentially unchanged. Most married women now share responsibility for the breadwinner role, yet many men do not accept their share of domestic responsibilities. Consequently, many women have a "double day" or "second shift" because of their dual responsibilities for paid and unpaid work.
Describe functionalist and neoclassical economic perspectives on gender stratification and contrast them with conflict perspectives.
According to functionalist analysts, women's roles as caregivers in contemporary industrialized societies are crucial in ensuring that key societal tasks are fulfilled. The husband performs the instrumental tasks of economic support and decision making; the wife assumes the expressive tasks of providing affection and emotional support for the family. According to conflict analysts, the gendered division of labor within families and the workplace - particularly in agrarian and industrial societies - results from male control and dominance over women and resources.
Discuss the gendered division of paid work and explain its relationship to the issue of pay equity or comparable worth.
- Gendered division of labor (1) type of subsistence base, (2) supply and demand for labor, and (3) childrearing requirements.
- Gender-segregated work refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and place of work.
- Labor market segmentation - the division of jobs into categories with distinct working conditions - results women having separate and unequal jobs.
Describe the most important ways that they mass media contributes to gender socialization.
Refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males.
Primary Sex Characteristics
The genitalia used in the reproductive process.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual�s sex.
A person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete.
A person in whom the sex-related structures of the brain that define gender identity are opposite from the physical sex organs of the person�s body.
A male who lives as a women or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia.
Refers to an individual's preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexual), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).
Transgender was created to describe individuals who appearance, behavior, or self-identification does not conform to common social rules of gender expression.
Extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual.
Refers to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with "femininity and masculinity."
Refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process.
Is a person's perception of the self as female or male.
Is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body.
- Meaning that gender is one of the major ways by which social life is organized in all sectors of society.
- Example is workplace.
Is the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
Is a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.
Refers to the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life, including food, shelter, and clothing.
Consists of showing favoritism toward one gender over the other.
Unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
Refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations, jobs, and places of work.
- The division of jobs into categories with distinct working conditions - results in women having separate and unequal jobs.
- Impact on men and women - men often kept out of certain jobs (considered "girly")
The disparity between women's and men's earnings.
Pay equity or Comparable Worth
- Is the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.
- How is the comparable worth of jobs determined - one way is to compare the actual work of women's and men�s jobs and see if there is a disparity in the salaries paid for each.
Is acquired by education and job training; it is the source of a person�s productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on the investment and the cost.
The belief that women and men are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights.
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