A&P 233 Exam 1 Blood

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  1. Blood's 5 Functions
    • 1. moves O2 and CO2, nutrients, hormones and wastes.
    • 2. regulates pH and ions changes
    • 3.contains blood clotting proteins, such as fibrinogen, and platelets
    • 4. prevents infections with white blood cells and antibodies
    • 5. regulates body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat
  2. Humans have how many liters of blood?
    5-6 Liters
  3. Blood is considered to be what kind of tissue?
    connective tissue because like all connective tissues it has specialized cells,extracellular protein and a fluid ground substance.
  4. Blood is made up of what?
     55 % plasma and 45 % cells in the average person.
  5. Plasma is and is made up of?
    • is the fluid (water) portion of blood and proteins like albumin and antibodies
    • Plasma is made up of water, solutes, and plasma proteins.
  6. Serum
    • is the fluid portion of blood after clotting so it is lacking clotting factors, fibrinogen and cells.
    • Blood tests for ions and glucose etc. are usually done on serum.
  7. Plasma Proteins  (4 Types)
    • 1. Albumin – most abundant protein. Ensures osmotic pressure (285 mOsm) and is a transport protein of fatty acids, hormones, steroids, and various drugs. The liver makes albumin.
    • 2. Globulins – or antibodies, also called immunoglobulins,( IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and there are also transport globulins of ions, like iron, triglycerides, hormones and steroids. Plasma cells ( an activated B lymphocyte) makes antibodies
    • 3. Fibrinogen – provides the basic fibrin framework for a blood clot.The liver makes fibrinogen
    • .4. Enzymes, Hormones, Lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) – from a variety of cells and endocrine glands.
  8. Albumin
    • most abundant protein. Ensures osmotic pressure (285 mOsm) and is a transport protein of fatty acids, hormones, steroids, and various drugs.
    • The liver makes albumin.
  9. Globulins
    • or antibodies, also called immunoglobulins,( IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and there are also transport globulins of ions, like iron, triglycerides, hormones and steroids.
    • Plasma cells ( an activated B lymphocyte) makes antibodies
  10. Fibrinogen
    • provides the basic fibrin framework for a blood clot.
    • The liver makes fibrinogen.
  11. Red Blood Cells
    RBCs,-erythrocytes –most abundant cell, flexible biconcave disc shape
  12. Erythrocytes?
    Red Blood Cells
  13. The test measuring percent of RBC is called what?
    hematocrit or packed cell volume, PCV.
  14. RBC has no _______ to get ATPs and uses what type of respiration
    nucleus, mitochondria or other organelles, uses anaerobic glycolysis
  15. RBC are Full of what which carries what into the cells?
    hemoglobin molecules, iron-containing proteins, which carries O2 and CO2 to cells
  16. RBCs live about how many days? and are removed by what...where?
    about 120 days and are removed by phagocytes of the spleen, liver and bone marrow.
  17. The "heme unit" is converted into what? and goes where to be excreted as what?
    to bilirubin in the bloodstream, a yellowpigment, which goes to the liver to be excreted as bile.
  18. Erythropoiesis
    is the formation of RBCs that occurs in the red bone marrow of bones such as the ribs,pelvis and proximal femur and humerus.
  19. Erythropoietin
    is a hormone from the kidneys that stimulates the formation of RBCs.
  20. reticulocyte
    • Small amounts of RNA that is still in the cytoplasm.
    • Immature RBC
    • Reticulocytes typically stay in the bone marrow a few more days to mature so that thecytoplasm is completely red and has no RNA left.
  21. White Blood Cells
    • These cells have nuclei and bluish cytoplasm.
    • They defend the body against various bacterial, viral and toxin attacks
  22. Diapedesis
    When WBC leave vessels and go to injured area following chemotactic stimuli.
  23. NLMEB
    • In the normal person:
    • Neutrophils>
    • Lymphocytes>
    • Monocytes>
    • Eosinophils>
    • Basophils
  24. Granulocytes:
    Neutrophils, (Bands) Eosinophils, Basophils
  25. Agranulocytes:
    Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.
  26. Neutrophils
    • most abundant WBC , with ‘neutral’ staining granules.
    • Puss in a wound
    • Short life span, days.
  27. They kill microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses) Often associated with bacteria.
  28. Bands
    immature neutrophils with a horseshoe shaped nucleus.
  29. Eosinophils
    • normally just a small number in circulation, granules are red loving.
    • Allergy and parasite responders.
    • Phagocytic cells with granules of histamine and enzymes.
  30. Basophils
    • normally very small number in circulation, granules are blue loving.
    • Also in tissue.Granules contain histamine which dilates capillaries and heparin which prevents clots.
  31. Monocytes
    • Largest cells, with blue cytoplasm and purple kidney bean shaped nucleus.
    • Made in the bone marrow and enters the tissue and becomes a Macrophage
  32. Lymphocytes
    most abundant agranulocyte, three known types but all look alike. T, B, NK cells
  33. Three types of Lymphocytes
    • 1. T- cells - cell-mediated immunity, directly attacking foreign cells.
    • 2. B- cells – humoral immunity, activated plasma cells make antibodies that attach to antigens
    • 3. NK cells – natural killer cells that remove abnormal ‘self’ cells such as cancer cells
  34. Mast Cells
    are made in the Bone Marrow from the basophil cell line and then go to the connective tissue.
  35. Lymphocytes in the fetus
    are made in the bone marrow and all look exactly the same…butlooks are deceiving. Lymphocytes have many copies, clones or memory cells that last a lifetime.
  36. Antigens
    are proteins, glycoproteins or other large molecules that generate an immune response.
  37. Lymphatic System is and contains?
    • produces, maintains and distributes lymphocytes.
    • Lymph tissue includes tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and bone marrow.
  38. MALT
    mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the GIT and respiratory tract
  39. Peyer’s Patch
    is lymphoid tissue associated with the small intestine.
  40. Lymph fluid carries what and returns to what Vein?
    • Lymph fluid carries lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, protein, water, and solutes.
    • It returns them to the left or right subclavian vein
  41. Thymosin
    is a hormone that promotes the specialization of the T-lymphocytes.
  42. Innate or Non-Specific Defense
    response is the same regardless of invading agent, so dirt,bacteria, fungus, virus, etc. all get the same response.
  43. Inflammatory Response
    • local response to contain injury or infection.
    • Mast cells and basophils release histamine, and attract other cells to area to destroy foreign material.
  44. Chemicals of non-specific Defense
    local hormones and enzymes such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, interferons,cytokines, lysozymes etc. which are alarm calls of the body to increase the defense response.
  45. Fever
    change hypothalamus set point to increase body temperature and increase metabolism so production of lymphocytes increases and inhibit the growth of microorganism.
  46. Complement
    • 20 types of proteins made by the liver.
    • These proteins help increase the inflammatory response and stimulate many WBCs to phagocytize the foreign material and arepart of the Innate or Non-specific Defense system.
    • Complement is in plasma at all times.
  47. Acquired or Specific Defense System:
    response that is specific to the specific foreign agent.
  48. Specific Defense System
    • 1. T lymphocytes are activated. Specific T helper cells and specific T cytotoxic cells areactivated and the T cytotoxic cells leave the lymph node and go destroy the foreign agent.T cytotoxic cells are in charge of what is called Cell-mediated immunity.
    • 2. B lymphocytes become plasma cells that produce a specific antibody or immunoglobulin thatcan destroy the foreign agent. B lymphocytes are in charge of what is called Humoral immunity.
  49. Immune Response ABC's
    • A. Inflammatory Response -innate or non-specific defense to a pathogen, the local response.
    • 1. Mast cells - release histamine, prostaglandins, and other chemicals
    • 2. Histamine
    • 3. Neutrophils and then Macrophages go to area & release chemicals
    • 4. The macrophage or dendritic cell carries the antigen to the lymph node. to attract more WBC cells.
  50. Immune Response ABC's
    • B. Specific Defense- T Lymphocytes and B Lymphocytes are activated to a specific antigen.
    •              Meanwhile, at the LYMPH NODE
    • Macrophage – presents the antigen using the Class II MHC protein in cell membrane.Specific T-Helper cell reacts to that specific antigen
    • T- regulatory cells ( or T suppressor cells) go to inflamed area and suppress the response.
  51. Immune Response ABC'S
    • C. Sometime later, back at the tissue…..
    • T cytotoxic cells & antibodies and more complement arrive on the scene
  52. T Helper cell releases what and activate what 2 specifics to fight antigens?
    Interleukins which activate specific T-Lymph and specific B-lymph to fight the antigen
  53. Interferons
    chemicals released by abnormal-viral infected host cells and WBCs that activate the neutrophils, monocytes, Natural Killer cells etc. to destroy cell.
  54. Interleukins
    • many kinds of interleukins released by T helper cells.
    • T Helper cells produce interleukins that activate T helper cells, T cytotoxic cells, and
    • B Lymphocytes. (Go Go) Positive feedback
  55. Colony Stimulating Factor
    released by white blood cells to signal the bone marrow to makeand release more white blood cells, leukocytosis. Positive feedback
  56. Migration Inhibitory Factor
    is released by white blood cells, WBCs, to keep WBC at site.Positive feedback.
  57. Endogenous Pyrogens
    released by WBCs to change the hypothalamus set point and cause ageneral fever. Fever causes increased metabolism, faster mitosis of Lymphocytes, faster response.
  58. HIV
    • human immunodeficiency virus targets cells with CD 4 proteins in their membranes so it is targeting T Helper cells.
    • (HIV also destroysmacrophages and dendritic cells.)
  59. SCID – Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
    these infants have a genetic defect causing alack of the Specific Immune System.
  60. Antibody Structure (2) Segments
    • Variable segment: Binds to the specific antigen.
    • Constant segment: Binding sites for macrophages, other WBC and complement.
  61. Types of Antibodies
    • 1. IgM- 1st type made
    • 2. IgG- 2nd type made
    • 3. IgA – mucosal surfaces
    • 4. IgE
    • 5. IgD
  62. What is the first antibody made?
    • IgM- 1st type made
    • 5 antibodies joined together, pentamer, with total of 10 binding sites
    • binds to all types of antigens i.e. viral, bacterial, fungal, toxins, parasites.Can not cross the placenta.
  63. What is the second antibody made?
    • IgG- 2nd type made single antibody, monomer
    • 75% of all antibodies, the most abundant type, fixes complement. binds to all types of antigens, crosses the placenta.
  64. What antibody is on the Mucosal Surfaces?
    • IgA – mucosal surface s2 antibodies linked, dimer
    • 10% of all antibodies made, in lungs, GIT, saliva and breast milkbinds and prevents all types of antigens from attaching to the mucosal surface.
  65. Antibody expected with allergic reaction?
    IgE – allergic and type 1 hypersensitivity, anaphylaxissingle antibody, monomer 0.005% of all antibodies, usually least abundant prevents parasite infection and causes allergic response,binds to mast cells, basophils and eosinophils causing histamine release
  66. What antibody is a receptor on B-Lymph
    IgD – monomer, is a cell receptor on B-lymphocytes,
  67. Primary Response
    more IgM is made than IgG and memory cells seed other lymph tissue.
  68. Secondary Response
    memory cells activate and quickly produce a large IgG response thatlasts much longer than the primary IgM response.
  69. Precipitation
    Antibodies cover small serum soluble antigens and they drop out ofsuspension making removal easier for phagocytic cells.
  70. Lysis
    Bacteria and other cells are lysed or destroyed by antibodies that are able to fixcomplement using the classical pathway.
  71. Agglutination
    Antibodies bind to multiple foreign cells causing clumping. The foreigncells are no longer soluble in blood.
  72. Neutralization
    Antibodies cover an antigen or bind to a toxin and prevent it from binding tothe host cells.
  73. Opsonization
    Antibodies coat the antigen and the constant portion of the antibody allowsmacrophages and other WBC to more easily phagocytize the antigen.
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A&P 233 Exam 1 Blood
2012-08-30 16:18:19
233 Exam Blood

A&P 233 Exam 1 Blood
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