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Blood's 5 Functions
- 1. moves O2 and CO2, nutrients, hormones and wastes.
- 2. regulates pH and ions changes
- 3.contains blood clotting proteins, such as fibrinogen, and platelets
- 4. prevents infections with white blood cells and antibodies
- 5. regulates body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat
Humans have how many liters of blood?
Blood is considered to be what kind of tissue?
connective tissue because like all connective tissues it has specialized cells,extracellular protein and a fluid ground substance.
Blood is made up of what?
55 % plasma and 45 % cells in the average person.
Plasma is and is made up of?
- is the fluid (water) portion of blood and proteins like albumin and antibodies
- Plasma is made up of water, solutes, and plasma proteins.
- is the fluid portion of blood after clotting so it is lacking clotting factors, fibrinogen and cells.
- Blood tests for ions and glucose etc. are usually done on serum.
Plasma Proteins (4 Types)
- 1. Albumin – most abundant protein. Ensures osmotic pressure (285 mOsm) and is a transport protein of fatty acids, hormones, steroids, and various drugs. The liver makes albumin.
- 2. Globulins – or antibodies, also called immunoglobulins,( IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and there are also transport globulins of ions, like iron, triglycerides, hormones and steroids. Plasma cells ( an activated B lymphocyte) makes antibodies
- 3. Fibrinogen – provides the basic fibrin framework for a blood clot.The liver makes fibrinogen
- .4. Enzymes, Hormones, Lipoproteins (HDL, LDL) – from a variety of cells and endocrine glands.
- most abundant protein. Ensures osmotic pressure (285 mOsm) and is a transport protein of fatty acids, hormones, steroids, and various drugs.
- The liver makes albumin.
- or antibodies, also called immunoglobulins,( IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and there are also transport globulins of ions, like iron, triglycerides, hormones and steroids.
- Plasma cells ( an activated B lymphocyte) makes antibodies
- provides the basic fibrin framework for a blood clot.
- The liver makes fibrinogen.
Red Blood Cells
RBCs,-erythrocytes –most abundant cell, flexible biconcave disc shape
Red Blood Cells
The test measuring percent of RBC is called what?
hematocrit or packed cell volume, PCV.
RBC has no _______ to get ATPs and uses what type of respiration
nucleus, mitochondria or other organelles, uses anaerobic glycolysis
RBC are Full of what which carries what into the cells?
hemoglobin molecules, iron-containing proteins, which carries O2 and CO2 to cells
RBCs live about how many days? and are removed by what...where?
about 120 days and are removed by phagocytes of the spleen, liver and bone marrow.
The "heme unit" is converted into what? and goes where to be excreted as what?
to bilirubin in the bloodstream, a yellowpigment, which goes to the liver to be excreted as bile.
is the formation of RBCs that occurs in the red bone marrow of bones such as the ribs,pelvis and proximal femur and humerus.
is a hormone from the kidneys that stimulates the formation of RBCs.
- Small amounts of RNA that is still in the cytoplasm.
- Immature RBC
- Reticulocytes typically stay in the bone marrow a few more days to mature so that thecytoplasm is completely red and has no RNA left.
White Blood Cells
- These cells have nuclei and bluish cytoplasm.
- They defend the body against various bacterial, viral and toxin attacks
When WBC leave vessels and go to injured area following chemotactic stimuli.
- In the normal person:
Neutrophils, (Bands) Eosinophils, Basophils
Monocytes, and Lymphocytes.
- most abundant WBC , with ‘neutral’ staining granules.
- Puss in a wound
- Short life span, days.
They kill microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses) Often associated with bacteria.
immature neutrophils with a horseshoe shaped nucleus.
- normally just a small number in circulation, granules are red loving.
- Allergy and parasite responders.
- Phagocytic cells with granules of histamine and enzymes.
- normally very small number in circulation, granules are blue loving.
- Also in tissue.Granules contain histamine which dilates capillaries and heparin which prevents clots.
- Largest cells, with blue cytoplasm and purple kidney bean shaped nucleus.
- Made in the bone marrow and enters the tissue and becomes a Macrophage
most abundant agranulocyte, three known types but all look alike. T, B, NK cells
Three types of Lymphocytes
- 1. T- cells - cell-mediated immunity, directly attacking foreign cells.
- 2. B- cells – humoral immunity, activated plasma cells make antibodies that attach to antigens
- 3. NK cells – natural killer cells that remove abnormal ‘self’ cells such as cancer cells
are made in the Bone Marrow from the basophil cell line and then go to the connective tissue.
Lymphocytes in the fetus
are made in the bone marrow and all look exactly the same…butlooks are deceiving. Lymphocytes have many copies, clones or memory cells that last a lifetime.
are proteins, glycoproteins or other large molecules that generate an immune response.
Lymphatic System is and contains?
- produces, maintains and distributes lymphocytes.
- Lymph tissue includes tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and bone marrow.
mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the GIT and respiratory tract
is lymphoid tissue associated with the small intestine.
Lymph fluid carries what and returns to what Vein?
- Lymph fluid carries lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, protein, water, and solutes.
- It returns them to the left or right subclavian vein
is a hormone that promotes the specialization of the T-lymphocytes.
Innate or Non-Specific Defense
response is the same regardless of invading agent, so dirt,bacteria, fungus, virus, etc. all get the same response.
- local response to contain injury or infection.
- Mast cells and basophils release histamine, and attract other cells to area to destroy foreign material.
Chemicals of non-specific Defense
local hormones and enzymes such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, interferons,cytokines, lysozymes etc. which are alarm calls of the body to increase the defense response.
change hypothalamus set point to increase body temperature and increase metabolism so production of lymphocytes increases and inhibit the growth of microorganism.
- 20 types of proteins made by the liver.
- These proteins help increase the inflammatory response and stimulate many WBCs to phagocytize the foreign material and arepart of the Innate or Non-specific Defense system.
- Complement is in plasma at all times.
Acquired or Specific Defense System:
response that is specific to the specific foreign agent.
Specific Defense System
- 1. T lymphocytes are activated. Specific T helper cells and specific T cytotoxic cells areactivated and the T cytotoxic cells leave the lymph node and go destroy the foreign agent.T cytotoxic cells are in charge of what is called Cell-mediated immunity.
- 2. B lymphocytes become plasma cells that produce a specific antibody or immunoglobulin thatcan destroy the foreign agent. B lymphocytes are in charge of what is called Humoral immunity.
Immune Response ABC's
- A. Inflammatory Response -innate or non-specific defense to a pathogen, the local response.
- 1. Mast cells - release histamine, prostaglandins, and other chemicals
- 2. Histamine
- 3. Neutrophils and then Macrophages go to area & release chemicals
- 4. The macrophage or dendritic cell carries the antigen to the lymph node. to attract more WBC cells.
Immune Response ABC's
- B. Specific Defense- T Lymphocytes and B Lymphocytes are activated to a specific antigen.
- Meanwhile, at the LYMPH NODE
- Macrophage – presents the antigen using the Class II MHC protein in cell membrane.Specific T-Helper cell reacts to that specific antigen
- T- regulatory cells ( or T suppressor cells) go to inflamed area and suppress the response.
Immune Response ABC'S
- C. Sometime later, back at the tissue…..
- T cytotoxic cells & antibodies and more complement arrive on the scene
T Helper cell releases what and activate what 2 specifics to fight antigens?
Interleukins which activate specific T-Lymph and specific B-lymph to fight the antigen
chemicals released by abnormal-viral infected host cells and WBCs that activate the neutrophils, monocytes, Natural Killer cells etc. to destroy cell.
- many kinds of interleukins released by T helper cells.
- T Helper cells produce interleukins that activate T helper cells, T cytotoxic cells, and
- B Lymphocytes. (Go Go) Positive feedback
Colony Stimulating Factor
released by white blood cells to signal the bone marrow to makeand release more white blood cells, leukocytosis. Positive feedback
Migration Inhibitory Factor
is released by white blood cells, WBCs, to keep WBC at site.Positive feedback.
released by WBCs to change the hypothalamus set point and cause ageneral fever. Fever causes increased metabolism, faster mitosis of Lymphocytes, faster response.
- human immunodeficiency virus targets cells with CD 4 proteins in their membranes so it is targeting T Helper cells.
- (HIV also destroysmacrophages and dendritic cells.)
SCID – Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
these infants have a genetic defect causing alack of the Specific Immune System.
Antibody Structure (2) Segments
- Variable segment: Binds to the specific antigen.
- Constant segment: Binding sites for macrophages, other WBC and complement.
Types of Antibodies
- 1. IgM- 1st type made
- 2. IgG- 2nd type made
- 3. IgA – mucosal surfaces
- 4. IgE
- 5. IgD
What is the first antibody made?
- IgM- 1st type made
- 5 antibodies joined together, pentamer, with total of 10 binding sites
- binds to all types of antigens i.e. viral, bacterial, fungal, toxins, parasites.Can not cross the placenta.
What is the second antibody made?
- IgG- 2nd type made single antibody, monomer
- 75% of all antibodies, the most abundant type, fixes complement. binds to all types of antigens, crosses the placenta.
What antibody is on the Mucosal Surfaces?
- IgA – mucosal surface s2 antibodies linked, dimer
- 10% of all antibodies made, in lungs, GIT, saliva and breast milkbinds and prevents all types of antigens from attaching to the mucosal surface.
Antibody expected with allergic reaction?
IgE – allergic and type 1 hypersensitivity, anaphylaxissingle antibody, monomer 0.005% of all antibodies, usually least abundant prevents parasite infection and causes allergic response,binds to mast cells, basophils and eosinophils causing histamine release
What antibody is a receptor on B-Lymph
IgD – monomer, is a cell receptor on B-lymphocytes,
more IgM is made than IgG and memory cells seed other lymph tissue.
memory cells activate and quickly produce a large IgG response thatlasts much longer than the primary IgM response.
Antibodies cover small serum soluble antigens and they drop out ofsuspension making removal easier for phagocytic cells.
Bacteria and other cells are lysed or destroyed by antibodies that are able to fixcomplement using the classical pathway.
Antibodies bind to multiple foreign cells causing clumping. The foreigncells are no longer soluble in blood.
Antibodies cover an antigen or bind to a toxin and prevent it from binding tothe host cells.
Antibodies coat the antigen and the constant portion of the antibody allowsmacrophages and other WBC to more easily phagocytize the antigen.