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Frequency table
A frequency table lists the categorical variable and gives the count of observations for each category.

Relative frequency table
A frequency table lists the categorical variable and gives the percentage of observations for each category.

Distribution
 The distribution of a variable gives
  the possible values of the variable and
  the relative frequency of each value

Area principle
In a statisical display, each data value should be represented by the same amount of area

Bar chart
Bar charts show a bar repesenting the count of each category in a categorical variable.

Pie chart
Pie charts show how a "whole" divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose area corresponds to the proportion in each category.

Contingency table
A contingency table displays counts and, somtimes, percentages of individuals falling into named categories on two or more variables. The table categorizes the individuals on all variables at once, to reveal possible patterns in one variable that may be contingent on the category of the other.

Marginal distribution
In a contigency table, the distribution of either variable alone is called the marginal distribution. The counts or percentages are the totals found in the margins (last row or column) of the table.

Conditional distribution
The distribution of a variable restricting the Who to consider only a smaller group of individuals is called a conditional distribution.

Independence
Variables are said to be independent if the conditional distribution of one variable is the same for each category of the other.

Simpson's Paradox
When averages are taken across different groups, they can appear to contradict the overall averages.

