The Nervous System

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The Nervous System
2012-08-30 04:57:27
Chapter 29 Nervous System

The Nervous System
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  1. Aphasia
    A general term for a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to communicate with others; may be expressive (an inability to form words) or receptive (an inability to understand words); often occurs following a stroke
  2. Axon
    A long extension from the body of a neuron that sends information to other neurons
  3. Central nervous system (CNS)
    The brain and spinal cord; responsible for receiving information, processing it, and issuing instructions
  4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    A clear fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord and acts as a "shock absorber" to protect these structures
  5. Coma
    A state of unconsciouness from which a person cannot be aroused
  6. Dendrites
    Short extensions from the body of a neuron that receive information from other neurons
  7. Epilepsy
    A disorder characterized by chronic seizure activity
  8. Meninges
    The three layers of connective tissue that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
  9. Motor nerves
    Nerves that carry commands from the brain down the spinal cord and out to the muscels and organs of the body
  10. Multiple sclerosis (MS)
    A disorder of the nervous system in which the myelin sheaths that cover the nerves are damaged, resulting in faulty transmission of nerve impulses
  11. Myelin
    A fatty, white substance that protects the axon and helps to speed the conduction of nerve impulses along the axon
  12. Neuron
    A cell that can send and receive information
  13. Parkinson's disease
    A progressive neurologic disorder that is characterized by tremor and weakness in the muscles and a shuffling gait
  14. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord; receives information from the environment, and carries commands from the brain and spinal cord to other organs of the body, such as the muscles
  15. Persistent vegetative state
    A state of altered consciousness in which the person appears to be awake, but cannot respond in a deliberate or meaningful way to the environment
  16. Sensory nerves
    Nerves that carry information from the internal organs and the outside world to the spinal cord and up into the brain so that the brain can analyze the information
  17. Stroke
    A disorder that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is completely blocked, causing the tissue to die; also known as a "brain attack" or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  18. Synapse
    The gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the next
  19. Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    A temporary (transient) episode of dysfunction caused by decreased blood flow to the brain