Principles Chapter 14

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Principles Chapter 14
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Principles Chapter 14
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  1. Explain the relationship between politics, government, and the state, and how political sociology differs from political science.
    • Politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups.
    • Government is the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.
    • State is the political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals.
    • Political science primarily focused on power and its distribution in different types of political systems.
    • Political Sociology is the area of sociology that examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies, as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power.
  2. Distinguish between power and authority, and describe the three major types of authority.
    • Politics is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups.
    • Authority is power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.
    • Traditional Authority is power that is legitimized on the basis of long-standing custom.
    • Charismatic Authority is power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities.
    • Rational-Legal Authority is power legitimized by law or written rules and procedures. Also referred to as bureaucratic authority. (president)
  3. State the major elements of the pluralist (functionalist) model of power and political systems.
    • Pluralist Model is an analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups.
    • Four main functions: (1) maintaining law and order, (2) planning and directing society, (3) meeting social needs, and (4) handling international relations, including welfare.
    • Key elements: (1) the diverse needs are met by political leaders who engage in a process of barginaing, accommodation, and compromise, (2) competition among leadership groups, (3) power is widely dispersed in society, (4) public policy is not always based on majority preference; balance of competing interest groups, and(5) Everyday people can influence public policy by voting in elections, participating in existing special interest groups, or forming new ones to gain access to the political system.
  4. State the major elements of elite (conflict) models of power and political systems.
    • Elite Model - A view of society that sees power in political systems as being concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites whereas the masses are relatively powerless.
    • Key elements: (1) Decisions are made by the elite, (2) consensus exists among the elite on the basic values and goals of society; consensus does not exist among most people in society on these important social concerns, (3) Power is highly concentrated at the top of a pyramid-shaped social hierarchy, and (4) Public policy reflects the values and preferences of the elite, not the preferences of the people.
  5. Discuss the characteristics of the federal bureaucracy and explain what the term �permanent government� means.
    • 1) employees >2 million
    • 2) much of the functioning of the gov�t is done by the bureaucracy- public policy is done increasingly by the bureaucrats
    • 3) perpetuate and expand due to the need for highly specialized employees
    • 4) size and scope of the gov has grown due to public demand and increase in technology
    • 5) permanent government (top tiers)
  6. Describe the military industrial complex and explain why it is called an iron triangle.
    • Military-Industrial Complex is the mutual interdependence of the military establishment and private military contractors.
    • In United States politics, the iron triangle is a term used by political scientists to describe the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy (executive) (sometimes called "government agencies"), and interest groups.
  7. Describe the purpose of political parties.
    A Political Party is an organization whose purpose is to gain and hold legitimate control of government.
  8. Compare and contrast governments characterized by monarchy, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and democracy.
    • In a monarchy, one person is the hereditary ruler of the nation.
    • In authoritarian systems, rulers tolerate little or no public opposition and generally cannot be removed from office by legal means.
    • In totalitarian systems, the state seeks to regulate all aspects of society and to monopolize al societal resources in order to exert complete control over both public and private life.
    • In democratic systems, the powers of government are derived from the consent of all the people.
  9. Governments where the power resides in one person.
    Totalitarianism, absolute monarchy, and authoritarianism.
  10. Governments where the power depends on support of military or powerful groups.
    Authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and limited monarchy.
  11. Governments where the people are allowed to participate in the government.
    Democracy, and constitutional monarchy.
  12. Governments where the leader or government controls all aspects of the people�s lives.
    Totalitarianism.
  13. Governments where rulers are above the law.
    Totalitarianism, absolute monarchy, and authoritarianism.
  14. Governments where people in power are elected by the people.
    Democracy and Constitutional monarchy.
  15. Describe how elite (conflict) models of power differ from pluralist (functionalist) models.
    • Pluralist model: (1) Decisions are made on behalf of the people by leaders who engage in bargaining, accommodation, and compromise, (2) Competition among leadership groups makes abuse of power by any one group difficult, (3) power is widely dispersed, and people can influence public policy by voting, and (4) public policy reflects a balance among competing interest groups.
    • Elite Model: (1) Decisions are made by a small group of elite people, (2) consensus exists among the elite on the basic values and goals of society, (3) power is highly concentrated at the top of a pyramid-shaped social hierarchy, and (4) public policy reflects the values and preferences of the elite.
  16. Explain the relationship between political socialization, political attitudes, and political participation.
    • Political Socialization is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
    • Political attitudes
    • Political participation: (1) voting, (2) attending and taking part in political meetings, (3) actively participating in political campaigns, and (4) running for and/or holding political meetings.
  17. Analyze how well U.S. political parties measure up to the ideal-type characteristics.
    Do not have an ideal two party system: (1) do not offer clear policy alternatives, (2) run by powerful groups of elites, (3) primary elections determined the nominees, (4) party loyalties are declining, and (5) media.
  18. Politics
    The social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by some people and groups.
  19. Government
    The formal organization that has the legal and political authority to regulate the relationships among members of a society and between the society and those outside its borders.
  20. State
    The political entity that possesses a legitimate monopoly over the use of force within its territory to achieve its goals.
  21. Political Sociology
    The area of sociology that examines the nature and consequences of power within or between societies, as well as the social and political conflicts that lead to changes in the allocation of power.
  22. Power
    According to Max Weber, the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals, despite opposition from others.
  23. Authority
    Power that people accept as legitimate rather than coercive.
  24. Traditional Authority
    Power that is legitimized on the basis of long-standing custom.
  25. Charismatic Authority
    Power legitimized on the basis of a leader's exceptional personal qualities.
  26. Routinization of Charisma
    The process by which charismatic authority is succeeded by a bureaucracy controlled by a rationally established authority or by a combination of traditional and bureaucratic authority.
  27. Rational-Legal Authority
    Power legitimized by law or written rules and procedures. Also referred to as bureaucratic authority.
  28. Monarchy
    A political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance.
  29. Authoritarianism
    A political system controlled by rulers who deny popular participation in government.
  30. Totalitarianism
    A political system in which the state seeks to regulate all aspects of people�s public and private lives.
  31. Democracy
    A political system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives.
  32. Pluralist Model
    An analysis of political systems that views power as widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups.
  33. Special Interest Groups
    Political coalitions composed of individuals or groups that share a specific interest that they wish to protect or advance with the help of the political system.
  34. Political Action Committees (PACs)
    Organizations of special interest groups that solicit contributions from donors and fund campaigns to help elect (or defeat) candidates based on their stances on specific issues.
  35. Elite Model
    A view of society that sees power in political systems as being concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites whereas the masses are relatively powerless.
  36. Power Elite
    C. Wright Mill's term for the group made up of leaders at the top of business, the executive branch of the federal government, and the military.
  37. Political Party
    An organization whose purpose is to gain and hold legitimate control of government.
  38. Political Socialization
    The process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.
  39. Military-Industrial Complex
    The mutual interdependence of the military establishment and private military contractors.
  40. Militarism
    A term used to describe a societal focus on military ideals and an aggressive preparedness for war.
  41. Terrorism
    The calculated unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
  42. War
    Organized, armed conflict between nations or distinct political factions.

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