infectious disease

Card Set Information

Author:
copperkid2
ID:
168127
Filename:
infectious disease
Updated:
2012-09-04 08:45:09
Tags:
infectious disease
Folders:

Description:
infectious disease test review
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user copperkid2 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
    • allergic reaction
    • governed by IgE immunoglobulin
    • histamine is released
    • occurs as a positive reaction to a scratch test
  2. what bodily changes are caused with the release of histamine
    • vasodilation
    • changes in vascular permeability
    • increased mucous production
    • contraction of various smooth muscles
  3. what is allergic rhinitis
    • aka hay fever
    • type 1 hypersensitivity reaction
    • SnS: sneezing, nasal itching, runny nose, itchy red eyes, dark circles under eyes
  4. what is atopic dermatitis
    • aka eczema
    • type 1 inflammatory skin response
    • causes pruritus, edema and extremely dry skin followed by eruptions of tiny vesicles
  5. therapeutic measures for atopic dermatitis (eczema)
    • lukewarm soaks followed by application of emollients and oil-in-water lubricants (alpha keri oil)
    • topical corticosteroids
    • wear cotton clothing
    • humidification in winter to prevent dryness
  6. type 1 hypersensitivity reactions
    • allergic rhinitis
    • anaphylaxis
    • urticaria
    • atopic dermatitis (eczema)
    • angioedema
  7. what is a common side effect of ace inhibitors
    angioedema
  8. pts with certain underlying conditions are sususceptible to urticaria; what are these conditions
    • lupus erythematosus
    • lymphoma
    • hyperthyroidism
    • cancer
  9. what is angioedema
    • form of urticaria
    • affects submucosal and subcutaneious tissues
    • painless and minimally pruritic
    • dermal erythematous and sucbcutaneous eruptions
  10. what is a type 2 hypersensitivity reaction
    • destruction of a cell or substance with an antigen attached to its membrane
    • sensed by IgG or IgM
  11. hemolytic transfusion reaction
    • RBC lysis because of incompatible antigens; ABO or RH
    • cellular debris occludes blood vessels
  12. signs and symptoms of hemolytic transfusion reaction
    • sudden onset of low back or chest pain
    • hypotension
    • chills
    • tachycardia
    • tachypnea
    • wheezing
    • dyspnea
    • urticaria
    • anxiety
  13. type 3 hypersensitive reactions
    • autoimmue reactions
    • serum sickness
    • red edematous skin lesions
    • hemorrhage
    • necrosis
  14. serum sickness
    • type 3 hypersensitivity reaction
    • usually occurs after given penicillin or sulfonamide
    • occurs 7 - 10 days after exposure
  15. type 4 hypersensitivity reaction
    • delayed reaction by a T lymphocyte
    • contact dermatitis
    • transplant rejection
  16. contact dermatitis
    • type 4 hypersensitivity reaction
    • T lymphocytes destroy foreign body
    • poison ivy
    • tb test
    • latex allergy
    • transplant rejection
  17. pernicious anemia
    • antibodies destroy gastric parietal cells
    • causes decreased production of intrinsic factor
    • pt develops b12 deficiency
    • causes decreased rbc production
  18. signs and symptoms of pernicious anemia
    • increasing weakness
    • loss of apppetite
    • glossitis (inflammation or infection of tongue)
    • tingling in extremities (peripheral neuropathy)
    • confusion
    • irritabiltity
  19. are immunosuppressive drugs required for life after an organ transplant
    • yes
    • pt at high risk for infection
  20. idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • antibodies lyse or agglutinate (clump) RBCs
    • mild fatigue
    • pallor
    • severe hypotension
    • dyspnea
    • palpitations
    • jaundice
  21. treatment for idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    • folic acid to increase RBC production
    • spleenectomy to stop RBC destruction
  22. hashimotos thyroiditis
    • autoantibodies bind with hormone receptor sites on the thyroid and causes hyperthyroidism
    • eventually other autoantibodies destroyt thyroid cells causing hypothyroidism
  23. signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism
    • restlessness
    • tremors
    • chest pain
    • increased appetite
    • diarrhea
    • moist skin
    • heat intolerance
    • weight loss
  24. signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism
    • bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • dyspnea
    • anorexia
    • constipation
    • dry skin
    • weight gain
    • facial puffiness
    • cold sensitivity
    • slowing of mental process
  25. signs and symptoms of discoid lupus
    patchy, crusty, sharply defined skin plaques; occur on face or sun exposed areas
  26. how does lupus affect the skin
    • butterfly rash
    • photosensitivity
    • mucosal ulcers
    • alopecia
    • pain
    • pruritis
    • bruising
  27. how does lupus affect the musculoskeletal system
    • arthralgia
    • arthritis
  28. how does lupus affect the blood
    • anemia
    • leukocytopenia
    • eleveated ESR
    • thrombocytopenia
    • false positive VDRL
  29. how does lupus affect the heart
    • pericarditis
    • myocarditis
    • myocardial infarction
    • vasculitis
    • pleurisy
    • vlavular heart disease
  30. how does lupus affect the renal system
    • renal failure
    • uti
    • fluid and electrolyte imbalance
  31. how does lupus affect the central nervous system
    • cranial neuropathies
    • cognitive impairment
    • mental changes
    • seizures
  32. how does lupus affect the GI system
    • anorexia
    • ascites
    • pancreatitis
    • intestinal vasculitis
  33. how does lupus affect the eyes
    • conjunctivitis
    • dry eyes
    • glaucoma
    • cataracts
    • retinal pigmentation
  34. lupus treatments
    • NSAIDs (motrin, indocin, naprosyn)
    • immunosuppressants (imuran, sandimmune, rheumatrex)
    • corticosteroids (decadron, solu-medrol, solu-cortef, deltasone)
    • antimalarials (aralen, paquenil)
    • intravenous immunoglobulin
  35. ankylosing spondylitis
    • inflammatory disease of the spine and sacroiliac area
    • may cause spinal fusion
    • positive test for HLA B27 antigen related to the disease
  36. signs and symptoms of ankylosing spondylitis
    • lower back stiffness and pain; worse in morning
    • normal curvature of lower back flattens
    • upper back curvature increases
  37. hypogammaglobulinemia
    • deficiency of one or more immunoglubulin
    • increased chance of infection
    • infant asymptomatic until 6 months; maternal immunoglubulins gone
  38. humoral immunity
    involves B cells
  39. cell-mediated immunity
    involves T cells
  40. chain of infection
    • reservoir
    • causative agent
    • mode of transmission
    • portal of entry
    • susceptible host
    • portal of exite
  41. how does direct contact transmission occur
    • touching, kissin, sexual contact,
    • droplet spray into eyes or mucous membrane; sneezing, coughing spitting, singing, talking
    • biting
  42. name some diseases spread through contact transmission
    • influenza
    • stds
    • c. diff.
    • conjunctivitis
    • herpes
    • impetigo
    • pediculosis
  43. droplet spread is usually limited to what distance
    3 feet
  44. how does indirect contact transmission occur
    • spread by contaminated object; vehicleborne
    • spread by infectious organism; vectorborne
  45. Can conjunctivitis, trichonosis, HIV and hepatitis A, B, C, D and E be spread by indirect contact?
    yes
  46. airborne contact
    • particles float in air for a long time and may travel long distances
    • may be inhaled or deposited on mucous membrane of susceptible host
  47. are measles, chickenpox and tuberculosis transmitted by airborne transmission
    yes
  48. is chickenpox transmitted through direct, indirect and airborne transmission
    yes
  49. steps in the inflammatory response
    • vascular: local vasodilation increases blood flow, creates redness and heat
    • inflammatory exudate: swelling caused by plasma entering tissue
    • phagocytosis and purulent exudate: destruction of pathogens creates pus
  50. manifestation of localized infection
    pain, redness, swelling and warmth at site
  51. manifestation of generalized infection
    • headache
    • malaise
    • muscle aches
    • fever
    • anorexia
    • hypotension
    • mental confusion
    • tachycardia
    • shock
  52. naturally acquired passive immunity
    baby acquires immunity through breast milk
  53. artificially acquired passive immunity
    • injection of antibodies from an outside source
    • hep B injection
  54. what 3 things happen to our immune system as we get older
    • less efficient immune response
    • increased perception of body's tissue as foreign
    • malignant cells not destroyed as quickly (higher chance of cancer)
  55. community acquired infection
    pt has infection before admitted to hospital
  56. which areas within a hospital have an increased number of nosocomial infections
    • icu
    • neonatal
    • dialysis
    • oncology
    • burn unit
  57. iatrogenic infection
    • caused by treatment given to pt
    • immunosupressants to reduce organ rejection increase risk of infection
  58. what must be done when transporting a pt under airborne precautions
    provide pt with surgical mask
  59. do pts with influenza recquire droplet precautions
    • yes
    • must maintain distance of 3 ft from pt
    • wear mask upon entering pt room
    • surgical mask when transporting pt
  60. if a pt has severe sepsis which drug may be given
    drotrecogin
  61. which drug is used to treat MRSA
    vancomycin hydrochloride
  62. which drug is used to treat VRE
    • synercid (quinupristin/dalfopristin)
    • zyvox (linezolid)
  63. ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are known to have which side effect
    diarrhea
  64. effect of reverse transcriptase
    • forces human cell to produce new dna from viral rna
    • human cells are tricked into creating more viral particles
  65. initial stage of hiv
    • lasts 4 - 8 weeks
    • high levels in blood
    • acute retroviral syndrome: generalized flulike symptoms
  66. retrovirus
    RNA is made into DNA not vice versa
  67. latent stage of hiv infection
    • lasts 2 to 12 years
    • virus is inactive
    • high levels in lymph nodes but low in blood
    • pt asymptomatic
    • cd4 cells decline
  68. third stage of hiv infection
    • lasts 2 - 3 years
    • pt gets opportunistic infections
    • cd4 cells usually below 500
    • blood viral levels increase
    • AIDS when cd4 < 200
    • usually die within 1 year
  69. how is hiv transmitted
    • blood
    • vaginal secretions
    • semen
    • fetal transmission
    • breast milk
  70. how is perinatal transmission of hiv prevented
    • antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, labor and delivery (zidovudine [AZT, retrovir])
    • infant given zidovudine for 6 weeks
  71. first action that should be taken if accidentally exposed to hiv
    wash site with soap and water immediately
  72. medications given post accidental exposure to hiv
    • zidovudine and lamivudine
    • or combivir
  73. AIDS is diagnosed when the cd4 count is below which number
    200
  74. AIDS wasting syndrome
    • loss of more than 10% of baseline body weight
    • chronic weakness or fever, or chronic diarrhea longer than 30 days
  75. common opportunistic infections associated with aids
    • candida albicans
    • cytomegalovirus
    • pneumocystis jioveci pneumonia
    • tuberculosis
    • viral infections
    • kaposi's sarcoma
  76. candida albicans
    • common opportunistic infection associated with AIDS
    • 80% of pts develop it
    • oral or esophageal pain
    • dysphagia
    • yellow-white plaques in mouth and throat
  77. cytomegalovirus
    • opportunistic infection associated with AIDS
    • usually affects eyes
    • may cause vision impairment or blindness
    • transmitted through bodily fluids and blood through unprotected sex
  78. pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
    • common opportunistic infection associated with AIDS
    • fungal
    • acquired by inhalation
    • shortness of breath, non productive cough and fever
    • second leading cause of death in AIDS pts
    • treated with bactrim, dapsone, clindamycin and pentamidine
  79. HIV testing pattern
    • ELISA test
    • if positive, repeat ELISA
    • second positive, Western Blot Test
    • if all positive, HIV diagnosed
  80. purpose of genotyping in hiv pts
    measures resistance to current antiviral treatments

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview