Principles Chapter 15

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bosselaj
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Principles Chapter 15
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2010-04-29 16:22:38
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Principles Chapter 15
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  1. Describe kinship ties and distinguish between families or orientation and families or procreation.
    • Kinship is a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
    • Through kinship networks, people cooperate so that they can acquire the basic necessities of life, including food and shelter. Kinship systems can also serve as a means by which property is transferred, goods are produced and distributed, and power is allocated.
    • Family of orientation: Although most people are related to members of their family of orientation by blood ties, those who are adopted have a legal tie that is patterned after a blood relationship.
    • Family of procreation: both legal and blood ties are found in most families of procreation.
  2. Define the social institution of the family.
    Today, families may be defined as relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.
  3. Distinguish between patriarchal, matriarchal, and egalitarian families.
    • Patriarchal Family is a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest male (usually the father).
    • Matriarchal Family is a family structure in which authority is held by the eldest female (usually the mother).
    • Egalitarian Family is a family structure in which both partners share power and authority equally.
  4. Describe the different forms of marriage found across cultures.
    • Monogamy is a marriage between two partners, usually a women and a man.
    • Polygamy is the concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of the opposite sex.
    • Polygyny is the concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women.
    • Polyandry is the concurrent marriage of one women with two or more men.
  5. Explain the differences in residential patterns and note why most people practice endogamy.
    • Patrilocal Residence is the custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife's parents.
    • Matrilocal Residence is the custom of a married couple living in the same household ( or community) as the wife's parents.
    • Neolocal Residence is the custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband's and the wife�s parents.
    • Endogamy is the cultural norms prescribing that people marry within their social group or category.
    • One reason endogamy is so prevalent is that it may be the proximity of other individuals in one's own group as contrasted with those who are geographically separated from it. Another reason may be that a person�s marriage choice is often influences by the opinions of parents, friends, and other people with whom the person associates.
  6. Describe functionalist, conflict, and feminist, symbolic interationist and postmodern perspectives on families.
    • Functionalists emphasize the importance of the family in maintain the stability of society and the well-being of individuals. Functions of the family include sexual regulation, socialization, economic and psychological support, and provision of social status.
    • Conflict and feminist perspectives view the family as a sources of social inequality and an arena for conflict.
    • Symbolic interactionists explain family relationships in terms of the subjective meanings and everyday interpretations that people give to their lives. Reflecting the individualism, particularity, and irregularity of social life in the Information Age, postmodern analysts view families as being permeable, capable of being diffused or invaded so that their original purpose is modified.
  7. Explain the major causes and consequences of divorce and remarriage in the United States.
    • At a macrolevel, changes in social institutions may contribute to an increase in divorce rates; at the microlevel, factors contributing to divorce include age at marriage, short acquaintanceship, limited economic resources, education level, children brought into marriage, and parental marital happiness.
    • Consequences: divorce may have a dramatic economic and emotional impact on family members, may be an opportunity to terminate a destructive relationship, personal growth (achieve goals), and children.
    • Remarriage: Most divorced people get remarried. Remarry other divorced people, younger and less educated women get remarried more with children, more men than women, and as a result create step families (hostility).
  8. Describe how U.S. families have changed over the past two decades.
    • Pre- Industrial: primary social organization - kinship (backwards in time) - social network
    • Industrial/Post Industrial - regulate sexual activity, produce and socialized children, and provide affection and companionship.
  9. Discuss the major issues associated with adoption, teenage pregnancies, single-parent households, and two-parent households.
    • Adoption: matching difficult, available are children of color, special needs, older (3 or above), and siblings, teens placing for, right to know, open adoption, and seek children from other nations.
    • Teenage Pregnancies: US highest rate, major problem not decreasing as fast as other groups, teenage mom less likely to complete HS, more likely to be in poverty, and have less social and economic opportunities, 43% have second child within three years, father WHO?, and have less parenting skills.
    • Single-Parent Households: emotional and financial burden, mother only (other factors), and single fathers.
    • Two-parent households: do not guarantee happy, well adjusted kids, men only work, and women - family (even if work out of home).
  10. Describe the ways that the double shift is experienced by men and women.
    • Second Shift: Arlie Hochschild's term for the domestic work that employed women perform at home after they complete their workday on the job.
    • Overall, when husbands share some of the household responsibilities, they typically spend much less time in these activities than do their wives. Perform different tasks, deadlines vary.
  11. Compare and contrast extended and nuclear families.
    • Extended Family is a family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household.
    • Nuclear Family a family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives.
  12. Discuss the system of descent and inheritance, and explain why such stems are important in societies.
    • Patrilineal Descent is a system of tracing descent through the father's side of the family. Legitimate son inherits his father's property and sometimes his position.
    • Matrilineal Descent is a system of tracing descent through the mother's side of the family. Women may not control property, but inheritance of property and position is usually traced from the maternal uncle to his nephew. Some cases mother's to daughters.
    • Bilateral Descent is a system of tracing descent through both the mother's and father's sides of the family. This pattern is used in the US for the purpose of determining kinship and inheritance rights; however, children typically take the father's last name.
  13. Describe cohabitation and domestic partnerships and note key social and legal issues associated with each.
    • Cohabitation is a situation in which two people live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married.
    • Domestic Partnerships are household partnerships in which an unmarried couple lives together in a committed, sexually intimate relationship and is granted the same rights and benefits as those accorded to married heterosexual couples.
  14. Describe the diversity found in contemporary US families.
  15. Describe the major problems faced by people in dual-earner marriages.
  16. Explain why it has become increasingly different to develop a concise definition of family.
  17. Describe the changing definition of the term interracial marriage and family.
  18. Families
    Relationships in which people live together with commitment, form an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group.
  19. Kinship
    A social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
  20. Family of Orientation
    The family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place.
  21. Family of Procreation
    The family that a person forms by having or adopting children.
  22. Extended Family
    A family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household.
  23. Nuclear Family
    A family composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, all of whom live apart from other relatives.
  24. Marriage
    A legally recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between two or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations and usually involves sexual activity.
  25. Monogamy
    A marriage between two partners, usually a women and a man.
  26. Polygamy
    The concurrent marriage of a person of one sex with two or more members of te opposite sex.
  27. Polygyny
    The concurrent marriage of one man with two or more women.
  28. Polyandry
    The concurrent marriage of one women with two or more men.
  29. Patrilineal Descent
    A system of tracing descent through the father's side of the family.
  30. Matrilineal Descent
    A system of tracing descent through the mother's side of the family.
  31. Bilateral Descent
    A system of tracing descent through both the mother's and father's sides of the family.
  32. Patriarchal Family
    A family structure in which authority is held by the eldest male (usually the father).
  33. Matriarchal Family
    A family structure in which authority is held by the eldest female (usually the mother).
  34. Egalitarian Family
    A family structure in which both partners share power and authority equally.
  35. Patrilocal Residence
    The custom of a married couple living in the same household (or community) as the wife�s parents.
  36. Matrilocal Residence
    The custom of a married couple living in the same household ( or community) as the wife�s parents.
  37. Neolocal Residence
    The custom of a married couple living in their own residence apart from both the husband�s and the wife�s parents.
  38. Endogamy
    Cultural norms prescribing that people marry within their social group or category.
  39. Homogamy
    The pattern of individuals marrying those who have similar characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, religious background, age , education, or social class.
  40. Exogamy
    Cultural norms prescribing that people marry outside their social group or category.
  41. Sociology of Family
    The subdiscipline of sociology that attempts to describe and explain patterns of family life and variations in family structure.
  42. Cohabitation
    A situation in which two people live together, and think of themselves as a couple, without being legally married.
  43. Domestic Partnerships
    Household partnerships in which an unmarried couple lives together in a committed, sexually intimate relationship and is granted the same rights and benefits as those accorded to married heterosexual couples.
  44. Dual-Earner Marriages
    Marriages in which bother spouses are in the labor forces.
  45. Second Shift
    Arlie Hochschild's term for the domestic work that employed women perform at home after they complete their workday on the job.

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