Microbiology

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doris_nicely
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Microbiology
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2012-08-30 14:37:01
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  1. I. The Scope of Microbiology?
    + The study of microscopic organisms' -> very small living things that can only be seen with magnifications (e.g., microbes, germs, bugs...)

    + It also involves the study of the specific interaction between microorganisms and humans, and between microbes and their environment.
  2. Immunology
    -> Study of the defense system against infections
  3. Epidemiology
    -> monitoring & controlling the speed of disease
  4. Bacteriology
    -> the study of bacteria
  5. Parasitology
    -> the study of protozoa & parasitic worms
  6. Mycology
    -> the study of fungi
  7. Virology
    the study of viruses
  8. Recombinant DNA Technology
    • -> altering the genetic makeup of organisms,
    • to produce substances such as drugs and hormones,
    • or to develop new organisms
  9. II. Naming and Classifying Microorganisms: 
    A. What is Taxonomy?
    -> the study of classification of organisms based on similarities. It includes:

    1. Classification - arrangement into groups

    2. Nomenclature - naming the organisms

    3. Identification - description & characterizations
  10. B. The levels of Classification?
    • 1. Kingdom
    • 2. Phylum (division)
    • 3. Classes
    • 4. Order
    • 5. Family
    • 6. Genus
    • 7. Species

    (Least common <-> Most common)
  11. Example of level of Classification?
    Humans belong to:

    • 1. Kingdom -> Animalia
    • 2. Phylum -> Chordata
    • 3. Class -> Mammalia
    • 4. Order -> Primates
    • 5. Family -> Hominoidea
    • 6. Genus -> Homo
    • 7. Species -> Sapiens
  12. C. Assigning Specific Names:
    What is Binomial nomenclature?
    • -> a system of naming the organisms using a 2-part latin combination.
    • It consists of the genus name and a specific name for the species; both are italicized.
    • Genus name is capitalized.
    • + Species name is in lower-case.
    • Ex: Homo sapiens.
  13. III. Types of Microorganisms:
    What is the origin & evolution of microorganism classification?
    1) Two - kingdom concept by Linnaeus

    2) Proposal of a third kingdom

    3) The 5 - kingdom concept by Whittake
  14. What was the Two - kingdom concept by Linnaeus about?
    • + Animal -> protozoa
    • + Plant -> other microorganisms
    • + This was impractical since some microorganisms were animal-like, some were plant-like, and some were both.
  15. What was the Proposal of a third kingdom?
    + Protista -> had the features of both animals and plants.(Ex: bacteria, algae, photozoa,...)
  16. What was the 5 - kingdom concept by Whittake about?
    • It included:
    • + Prokaryotes (Monera) -> Bacteria
    • + Protista -> eukaryotic, unicellular, such as algae & protozoa
    • + Myceteae (fungi) -> eukaryotic; such as molds & yeasts
    • + Plantae -> eukaryotic; such as plants
    • + Animalia -> eukaryotic; such as animals
  17. What is the differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?
    • Prokaryotes:
    • - smaller cells
    • - lack nucleus
    • - lack organelles
    • - all microorganisms'
    • - simple structure
    • - Subdivided into: Eubacteria (typical) & Archaebacteria (atypical)

    • + Eukaryotes:
    • - larger cells
    • - contain nucleus
    • - contain membrane bound organelles
    • - only some are microorganisms
    • -complex structures
  18. IV. A brief history of Microbiology:

    A. What was the first Observations about?
    -> the development of the Microscope.

    + Antony Van Leeuwenhoek is considered the father of microscopy (simple: microscope), bacteriology, and protozoology.

    + Microscope developed provided up to 300 times magnification, to observe microbes (or animalcules) in rainwater, in liquid in which peppercorns had soaked, and in material scraped from his teeth.
  19. Who is Antony Van Leeuwenhoek?
    + Antony Van Leeuwenhoek is considered the father of microscopy (simple: microscope), bacteriology, and protozoology.
  20. How many times did a Microscope provide up to at that time? What were it used to observe?
    + Microscope developed provided up to 300 times magnification

    + to observe microbes (or animalcules) in rainwater, in liquid in which peppercorns had soaked, and in material scraped from his teeth.
  21. B. What was the debate over spontaneous generation?
    • The school of thought on the origin of microorganisms:
    • 1. Abiogenesis (spontaneous generation) -> believe that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter. (believed until mid-19th century)

    2. Biogenesis -> belief that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.
  22. Abiogenesis (spontaneous generation)
    -> believe that some forms of life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter. (believed until mid-19th century)
  23. Biogenesis
    -> belief that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells.
  24. V. The Golden Age of Microbiology:
    What included in the Golden Age?
    1) The discovery of spores & sterilization.

    2) The development of aseptic techniques.

    3) The discovery of pathogens and the Germ theory of disease.
  25. What was the discovery of spores & sterilization?
    Endospores -> heat resistant; not completely destroyed by heat

    Sterilization -> the process of destroying all forms of life including spores from the objects and materials.
  26. What was the development of aseptic techniques?
    -> Used to reduce the disease-causing microorganisms.
  27. what was the discovery of pathogens and the Germ theory of disease?
    • Pathogens:
    • -> disease-causing microorganisms.
    • The germ theory of disease:
    • -> Microbes are the causative agents of some diseases
    • -> Koch developed lab techniques to isolate and study individual types of microbes.
    • -> Koch's postulates were set to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.
  28. 4) Fermentation & Pasteurization

    What is fermentation?
    • fermentation (used to make wine) 
    • -> Pasteur found out that microorganisms called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohol in the absence of air.

    -> He also found out that spoilage and souring (of wine, milk,..) are caused by bacteria; which can change the alcohol in these beverage into vinegar in the absence of air.
  29. What is pasteurization?
    -> Pasteur's solution to the problem of spoilage and souring of wine, milk,.. caused by bacteria -> heat the wine and milk,.. just enough to kill most of the bacteria.
  30. VI. The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy:
    What is Chemotherapy?
    • -> treament of disease by using chemical substances.
    • 1) Antibiotics -> chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms.

    2) Synthetic drugs -> agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory.
  31. What were the first synthetic drugs?
    + Paul Ehrlich (German physician) searched for an agent that could destroy a pathogen without harming the infected host.

    + Salvarsan (the first synthetic drug)-> an arsenic derivative effective against syphilis.

    +
    Sulfa drugs -> destroyed microorganisms; derivatives of dyes.

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