BIO 100 Final

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BIO 100 Final
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BYU BIO 100
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  1. 1. Most plants are ______, meaning that they are able to
    manufacture their nutrients from carbon dioxide and water.
    • ·        
    • autotrophs
  2. Which group is a probably immediate ancestor of the plants?
    • ·        
    • green algae

    • ·        
    • protists
  3. The first plants probably arose in the ______ period, about
    _______ million years ago.
    • ·        
    • algal scum - 1200 mya; Ordovician period

    • ·        
    • land plants - 450 mya

    • ·        
    • land plants diversified - 420 mya; Silurian
    • period

    • ·        
    • fossils show remarkable detail of current
    • features - Devonian period
  4. What are innovations that permit plants to live on land?
    • ·        
    • vascular tissue

    • ·        
    • cuticle

    • ·        
    • stomata
  5. Devonian innovations in the plant body include:
    • ·        
    • the seed

    • ·        
    • the pollen grain

    • ·        
    • seed dormancy

    • ·        
    • endosperm
  6. The plant innovation that provides protection of
    the sexual parts, attraction of pollinators, and the dispersal of the seeds is
    the:
    • ·        
    • flower
  7. 7. What is the correct order of events in the
    general plant life cycle?
    • ·        
    • plant produces sporangium

    • ·        
    • meiosis occurs -> sporocytes

    • ·        
    • sporocytes mature -> spores

    • ·        
    • spores are released and germinate

    • ·        
    • spore undergoes mitosis -> gametophyte

    • ·        
    • sex organs produced

    • ·        
    • sex cells mature

    • ·        
    • sperm released

    • ·        
    • sperm travels to and penetrates egg

    • ·        
    • sperm and egg fuse

    • ·        
    • zygote divides -> embryo

    • ·        
    • embryo produces juvenile sporophyte plant

    • ·        
    • plant matures
  8. Match the divisions of plants with their plants.
    • ·        
    • hepatophyta - liverworts

    • ·        
    • bryophyta - mosses

    • ·        
    • anthocerotophyta - hornworts

    • ·        
    • ryniophyta - fossil plants

    • ·        
    • psilotophyta - wisk ferns

    • ·        
    • lycopodiophyta - clubmosses

    • ·        
    • equisetophyta - horsetails

    • ·        
    • polypodiophyta - ferns

    • ·        
    • pinophyta - gymnosperms

    • ·        
    • cycadophyta - cycads

    • ·        
    • ginkgophyta - ginko

    • ·        
    • gnetophyta - gnetophytes

    • ·        
    • magnoliophyta - flowering plants
  9. In the plant life cycle, the gametophyte phase
    passes into the sporophyte phase through the process of ______.
    • ·        
    • fertilization
  10. 10. In the plant life cycle the sporophyte phase passes into
    the gametophyte phase through the process of ______.
    • ·        
    • meiosis
  11. 11. In the evolutionary history of the Plant Kingdom there
    is a _______ of the gametophyte generation as compared to the sporophyte
    generation.
    • ·        
    • reduction
  12. 12. What division of plants is characterized by having a
    ribbon-like thallus and gemmae?
    • ·        
    • hepatophyta
  13. 13. What division of plants is characterized by having
    spores that are produced in a sporangium in a sorus?
    polypodiophyta
  14. What division of plants is characterized by
    having seeds?
    • ·        
    • cycadophyta

    • ·        
    • pinophyta

    • ·        
    • magnoliophyta
  15. 15. What division of plants is characterized by having
    enations and syngangia?
    • ·        
    • psilotophyta
  16. 16. What divisions of plants are characterized by have
    macrophylls?
    • ·        
    • polypodiophyta

    • ·        
    • cycadophyta

    • ·        
    • ginkgophyta

    • ·        
    • magnoliophyta
  17. 17. What division of plants is characterized by having a
    strobilus?
    • ·        
    • lycopodiophyta
  18. 18. What division of plants is characterized by having
    pollen?
    • ·        
    • pinophyta
  19. 19. What division of plants is characterized by having
    vascular bundles arranged in a concentric ring?
    • ·        
    • magnoliopsida
  20. 20. What division of plants is characterized by having
    flower parts in multiples of three?
    • ·        
    • liliopsida
  21. 21. What are four characteristics shared by all animals?
    • ·        
    • autotrophs

    • ·        
    • heterotrophs

    • ·        
    • coelom

    • ·        
    • multicellular
  22. 22. What group is the probable immediate ancestor of the
    animals?
    • ·        
    • protists
  23. 23. The term invertebrate means:
    • ·        
    • without vertebrae
  24. 24. Place tissue, organ and cell is order of increasing
    level of organization.
    • ·        
    • cell

    • ·        
    • tissue

    • ·        
    • organ
  25. 25. The kind of symmetry described as "multiple planes
    of symmetry as in a star-shape, found in lower animals, generally in sessile
    organisms" is called:
    • ·        
    • radial symmetry
  26. 26. The kind of body plan that is described as "one
    opening for food ingestion and a separate opening for waste disposal" is
    called:
    • ·        
    • tube type
  27. 27. A cavity in the body that is completely surrounded by
    mesoderm tissue is called a:
    • ·        
    • coelom
  28. 28. A division of the body of an animal into more-or-less
    discrete units that may be specialized for distinct functions is an example of:
    • ·        
    • segmentation

    • ·        
    • metamerization
  29. 29-30. Match the phylum's with their animals.
    • ·        
    • phylum porifera - the sponges

    • ·        
    • phylum cnidaria - the cnidarians

    • ·        
    • phylum ctenophora - the comb jellies

    • ·        
    • phylum platyhelminthes - the flatworms

    • ·        
    • phylum nemertea - the ribbon worms

    • ·        
    • phylum nematoda - the round worms

    • ·        
    • phylum rotifera - the rotifers

    • ·        
    • phylum mollusca - the clams

    • ·        
    • phylum annelida - the segmented worms

    • ·        
    • phylum arthropoda - the insects

    • ·        
    • phylum echinodermata - the sea stars

    • ·        
    • phylum chordata - the vertebrates
  30. 29-30. Match the phylum's with their animals.
    • ·        
    • phylum porifera - the sponges

    • ·        
    • phylum cnidaria - the cnidarians

    • ·        
    • phylum ctenophora - the comb jellies

    • ·        
    • phylum platyhelminthes - the flatworms

    • ·        
    • phylum nemertea - the ribbon worms

    • ·        
    • phylum nematoda - the round worms

    • ·        
    • phylum rotifera - the rotifers

    • ·        
    • phylum mollusca - the clams

    • ·        
    • phylum annelida - the segmented worms

    • ·        
    • phylum arthropoda - the insects

    • ·        
    • phylum echinodermata - the sea stars

    • ·        
    • phylum chordata - the vertebrates
  31. 31. What phylum of animals is characterized by having
    choanocytes, spicules, and an osculum?
    • ·        
    • porifera
  32. 32. What phylum of animals is characterized by having
    nematocyts and mesoglea?
    • ·        
    • cnidaria
  33. 33. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a
    scolex and proglottids?
    • ·        
    • platyhelminthes
  34. 34. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a
    dorso-ventrally flattened body and a ladder-like nerve system?
    • ·        
    • platyhelminthes
  35. 35. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a
    pseudocoelom?
    • ·        
    • rotifera

    • ·        
    • nematoda
  36. 36. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a
    crown of cilia that resemble a wheel?
    • ·        
    • rotifera
  37. 37. What phylum of animals is characterized by containing
    the tapeworms and flukes?
    • ·        
    • platyhelminthes
  38. 38. What phylum of animals is characterized by containing
    the pinworms and heartworms?
    • ·        
    • nematoda
  39. 39. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a tube
    type body plan?
    • ·        
    • nematoda

    • ·        
    • rotifera
  40. 40. What phylum of animals is characterized by having a
    polyp and medusa stage?
    • ·        
    • cnideria
  41. 41. What phylum have no germ layers?
    • ·        
    • porifera
  42. 42. Which phylum have a true coelom?
    • ·        
    • mollusca

    • ·        
    • annelida

    • ·        
    • anthropoda

    • ·        
    • echinodermata

    • ·        
    • chordata
  43. 43. Which phylum have protostomic development?
    • ·        
    • arthropoda

    • ·        
    • annelida

    • ·        
    • mollusca
  44. 44. What are characteristics of protostomic development?
    • ·        
    • spiral cleavage

    • ·        
    • schizogenous coelom development

    • ·        
    • determinate cell development

    • ·        
    • blastophore becomes mouth
  45. 45. What kind of coelom development is described as:
    "mesoderm tissue arises as a pair of pouches that form from the endodermal
    tissue of the gut lining"?
    • ·        
    • enterogenous
  46. 46. What phylum has a body plan that consists of visceral
    mass, a mantle and a foot?
    • ·        
    • mollusca
  47. 47. Bivalves, cephalopods, and gastropods belong to which
    phylum?
    • ·        
    • mollusca
  48. 48. To which major group of animals do the squid, octopus,
    cuttlefish, and nautilus belong?
    • ·        
    • cephalopoda
  49. 49. The bristles on polychaete worms are used primarily for
    _______.
    • ·        
    • locomotion

    • ·        
    • respiration
  50. 50. Nephridia are used for ________.
    • ·        
    • removal of nitrogenous waste
  51. 51. In which phylum do we find external parasites that feed
    on blood that is obtained from their host through suckers?
    • ·        
    • annelida
  52. 52. The word "anthropoda" actually means _______.
    • ·        
    • jointed appendages
  53. 53. What are the main body segments of an arthropod?
    • ·        
    • head

    • ·        
    • thorax

    • ·        
    • abdomen
  54. 54. The nitrogenous polysaccharide that forms the outer
    skeleton of arthropods is called ______.
    • ·        
    • chitin
  55. 55. What structures of the head of an insect assist it in
    feeding?
    • ·        
    • maxillae

    • ·        
    • mandibles
  56. 56. In crustaceans the two anterior body parts are fused
    together to form the _______.
    • ·        
    • cephalothorax
  57. 57. If you want to drown an insect, what portion of its body
    would you place under water?
    • ·        
    • abdomen
  58. 58. What specialized structures are present in the bodies of
    insects that allow it to dispose of nitrogenous waste materials?
    • ·        
    • malpighian tubules
  59. 59. Some insects undergo a radical change during their life
    cycle called _______ in which they pass from the feeding stage to the
    reproductive stage.
    • ·        
    • metamorphosis
  60. 60. In spiders and scorpions the first pair of appendages
    that are enlarged for feeding are called:
    • ·        
    • chelicerae
  61. 61. Which phyluma have deuterostomic development?
    • ·        
    • chordata

    • ·        
    • echinodermata
  62. 62. What are characteristic of deuterostomic development?
    • ·        
    • radial cleavage

    • ·        
    • indeterminate cell development

    • ·        
    • enterogenous coelom development

    • ·        
    • blastopore becomes anus
  63. 63. What kind of coelom development is described as:
    "Mesoderm tissue arises as a pair of pouches that form from the endodermal
    tissue of the gut lining."?
    • ·        
    • enterogenous
  64. 64. Which phylum has an endoskeleton of calcium-rich
    spine-bearing plates?
    • ·        
    • echinodermata
  65. 65. What are the Classes in the Phylum Echinodermata?
    • ·        
    • crinoidea

    • ·        
    • holothuroidea

    • ·        
    • echinoidea

    • ·        
    • ophiuroidea
  66. 66. To which Class does the common sea star belong?
    • ·        
    • asteroidea
  67. 67. To which Class does the common spiny sea urchin belong?
    • ·        
    • echinoidea
  68. 68. What structure is described as a rod of supporting
    tissue located near the dorsal side of the organism?
    • ·        
    • notochord
  69. 69. What chordate structure eventually produces gills?
    • ·        
    • pharyngeal pouches
  70. 70. What chordate structure is described as an extension of
    the notochord past the anus containing the connective tissue of the notochord,
    muscle tissue, nerve tissue and a covering of epithelium?
    • ·        
    • post-anal tail
  71. 71. What are the subphyla of the Phylum Chordata?
    • ·        
    • urochordata

    • ·        
    • vertebrata

    • ·        
    • cephalochordata
  72. 72. Which subphyla of the Phylum Chordata possesses the four
    chordate characteristics in both the larval and adult stages, and does not have
    a bony covering over the nerve cord?
    • ·        
    • cephalochordata
  73. 73. Which subphyla of the Phylum Chordata possesses the four
    chordate characteristics in only the larval stage, and does not have a bony
    covering over the nerve cord?
    • ·        
    • urochordata
  74. 74. Which subphyla of the Phylum Chordata has a bony
    covering over the nerve cord?
    • ·        
    • vertebrata
  75. 75. What characteristic is described as a collection of
    nerve tissue in the head region of an organism?
    • ·        
    • cephalization
  76. 76. Which class of vertebrates contains the extinct,
    jawless, finless, armored fish?
    • ·        
    • class ostracoderma
  77. 77. Which class of vertebrates contains the sharks and
    stingrays?
    • ·        
    • class chondrichthyes
  78. 78. Which class of vertebrates contains the birds?
    • ·        
    • class aves
  79. 79. Which classes of vertebrates contains animals that lay
    eggs on land?
    • ·        
    • reptilia

    • ·        
    • aves

    • ·        
    • mammalia
  80. 80. Which classes of vertebrates contain animals that are
    endothermic?
    • ·        
    • aves

    • ·        
    • mammalia
  81. 81. What term refers to all organisms of the same species in
    a given area?
    • ·        
    • population
  82. 82. What term refers to all populations in a given area?
    • ·        
    • community
  83. 83. What term refers to the place where an organism lives?
    • ·        
    • habitat
  84. 84. What are the three population distribution types?
    • ·        
    • random

    • ·        
    • uniform

    • ·        
    • clumped
  85. 85. What population distribution type is the most common in
    nature?
    • ·        
    • clumped
  86. 86. What is the computation for the intrinsic rate of
    increase?
    • ·        
    • birth rate - death rate
  87. 87. If the birth rate of a population is 20 per 100 per
    year, and the death rate is 16 per 100 per year, what is the intrinsic rate of
    increase of the population?
    • ·        
    • 0.04
  88. 88. The maximum population growth that can occur under ideal
    circumstances is a population's:
    • ·        
    • biotic potential
  89. 89. Given ideal conditions and sufficient time, a population
    will experience ______, and produce a very large number of individuals.
    • ·        
    • exponential growth
  90. 90. During an exponential growth cycle of a population,
    which phase is characterized by having relatively few members of individuals
    and is early in the cycle?
    • ·        
    • lag phase
  91. 91. What factor prevents an exponentially increasing
    population from continuing to increase indefinitely?
    • ·        
    • environmental resistance
  92. 92. What are factors contributing to environmental
    resistance?
    • ·        
    • limited food supply

    • ·        
    • accumulation of waste materials

    • ·        
    • increased competition between members

    • ·        
    • predation
  93. 93. The maximum number of individuals of a species that a
    given habitat can support is a population's:
    • ·        
    • carrying capacity
  94. 94. A habitat's carrying capacity can:
    • ·        
    • increase

    • ·        
    • decrease

    • ·        
    • remain the same

    • ·        
    • be changed through human intervention
  95. 95. What is an example of a density-independent limiting
    factor on a population?
    • ·        
    • a severe ice storm
  96. 96. What are examples of density-dependent limiting factors
    on a population?
    • ·        
    • food supply

    • ·        
    • sites to take shelter

    • ·        
    • predators

    • ·        
    • diseases
  97. 97. What type of survivorship curve does the human
    population have?
    • ·        
    • Type I
  98. 98. Which type of survivorship curve is characterized by
    having a high birth rate and a large number of individuals that die soon after
    birth?
    • ·        
    • Type III
  99. 99. The survivorship curve for a population of elephants
    would most closely resemble that of a population of:
    • ·        
    • humans
  100. 100. What are examples of countries that have a stabilized
    age structure diagram?
    • ·        
    • USA

    • ·        
    • Sweden
  101. 101. What is the definition of community?
    • ·        
    • an assemblage of populations interacting with
    • one another within the same environment
  102. 102. The relative abundance of individuals of each species
    in the community is called:
    • ·        
    • evenness
  103. 103. The ecological range over which a species is able to
    survive is called an:
    • ·        
    • environmental gradient
  104. 104. Which community composition model and ecologist match
    the following description? "Species in a community are present primarily
    because of a dependence on other species, and abiotic factors in their
    environment are of secondary importance. The same species will occur together
    in communities and have distinct boundaries."
    • ·        
    • Interactive Model

    • ·        
    • Frederick E. Clements
  105. 105. Which community composition model and ecologist match
    the following description? "Species in a community are present primarily
    because their abiotic requirements are met, and interactions with other species
    are of secondary importance. Different species will have their own distinct
    distribution patterns. Boundaries between communities will not be
    distinct."
    • ·        
    • Individualistic Model

    • ·        
    • Henry L. Gleason
  106. 106. The Island Biogeography Model states that a ______
    island ______ the mainland is likely to have greater species diversity.
    • ·        
    • larger

    • ·        
    • closer to
  107. 107. The Island Biogeography Model can also be applied to:
    • ·        
    • nature preserves

    • ·        
    • city parks

    • ·        
    • woodlots

    • ·        
    • wildlife sanctuaries
  108. 108. What is the name of the model that states that the
    number of suitable habitats can be increased without requiring an increase in
    the overall area?
    • ·        
    • Spatial Heterogeneity Model
  109. 109. The number of suitable habitats can be increased
    without requiring an increase in the overall area by the process of _______.
    • ·        
    • creating patches

    • ·        
    • stratification
  110. 110. What are examples of species interactions?
    • ·        
    • commensalism

    • ·        
    • predation

    • ·        
    • parasitism

    • ·        
    • mutualism
  111. 111. The principle that states that no two species can
    occupy the same niche at the same time is called the:
    • ·        
    • Competitive exclusion principle
  112. 112. Even though different species have the same niche
    preferences, they are able to coexist because they have divided the habitat's
    resources among them. This is called:
    • ·        
    • resource partitioning
  113. 113. An alteration in the physical or behavioral characteristics
    of individuals in the populations when compared to individuals living apart
    from each other is an example of:
    • ·        
    • character displacement
  114. 114. Some species that do not have an antipredator defense
    mechanism possess a similar appearance to another species that does have an
    antipredator defense mechanism. This is called:
    • ·        
    • batesian mimicry
  115. 115. What Kingdoms contain parasites?
    • ·        
    • bacteria

    • ·        
    • fungi

    • ·        
    • plants

    • ·        
    • protists
  116. 116. A corn field that remains unplanted and undisturbed
    will become revegetated through the process of:
    • ·        
    • secondary succession
  117. 117. What are the three characteristics of community
    stability?
    • ·        
    • persistence through time

    • ·        
    • resistance to change

    • ·        
    • recovery after disturbance
  118. 118. Predators that regulate competition and maintain the
    species diversity of a community are called:
    • ·        
    • keystone predators
  119. 119. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis states that in
    order to maintain optimal species diversity in a community there needs to be:
    • ·        
    • a disturbance covering an area that is not too
    • small or large

    • ·        
    • a disturbance that is not too frequent or too
    • infrequent
  120. 120. Introducing natural predators to control the spread of exotic
    species is called:
    • ·        
    • biological control
  121. 121. The region of the earth, both terrestrial and aquatic,
    where living organisms are found is called:
    • ·        
    • biosphere
  122. 122. A region that includes all of the populations of
    organisms in a specific area, along with their non-living environmental
    components is called:
    • ·        
    • biome
  123. 123. The process of solar energy being absorbed by a body of
    land or water is called:
    • ·        
    • insolation
  124. 124. What factors determine the amount of solar energy
    absorbed by different land masses on the earth?
    • ·        
    • the title of the earth's axis

    • ·        
    • the rotation of the earth on its axis

    • ·        
    • the revolution of the earth around the sun

    • ·        
    • the relative distribution of land masses in the
    • Northern and Southern Hemispheres
  125. 125. What are the great gyres of air currents?
    • ·        
    • north hemisphere westerlies

    • ·        
    • south hemisphere westerlies

    • ·        
    • northeast trades

    • ·        
    • southeast trades

    • ·        
    • north pole easterlies

    • ·        
    • south pole easterlies
  126. 126. As air currents are forced to higher elevation because
    of topography, they are cooled and lose moisture. This is called:
    • ·        
    • adiabatic cooling
  127. 127. The distribution of biomes is primarily based on:
    • ·        
    • temperature

    • ·        
    • precipitation
  128. 128. Biome boundaries are not distinct, but grade into each
    other in regions called:
    • ·        
    • ecotones
  129. 129. Soil types are classified based on percent composition
    of:
    • ·        
    • silt

    • ·        
    • sand

    • ·        
    • clay
  130. 130. What are the terrestrial biomes?
    • ·        
    • coniferous forest

    • ·        
    • temperate deciduous forest

    • ·        
    • tropical forest

    • ·        
    • shrublands

    • ·        
    • tundra

    • ·        
    • grasslands

    • ·        
    • deserts
  131. 131. In which one of the earth's biomes would you expect to
    find permafrost?
    • ·        
    • tundra
  132. 132. In which one of the earth's biomes would you expect to
    find phytoplankton in a eutrophic epilimnion?
    • ·        
    • lake
  133. 133. In which one of the earth's biomes would you expect to
    find chemosynthetic bacteria surrounding hydrothermal vents?
    • ·        
    • benthic division
  134. 134. In which one of earth's biomes would you expect to find
    epiphytes and lianas?
    • ·        
    • tropical forest
  135. 135. In which one of earth's biomes would you expect to find
    a well-developed understory and prevernal flora?
    • ·        
    • temperate deciduous forest
  136. 136. In which of earth's biome types would you place the
    prairies of North American, the Pampas of South America, and the savannahs of
    Africa?
    • ·        
    • grassland
  137. 137. Which of earth's biome types is characterized by
    periodic flooding during high tide and exposure to air and sun during low tide?
    • ·        
    • seashore
  138. 138. What kind of biome would you expect to find
    in a fjord?
    • ·        
    • estuary
  139. 139. What kind of biome would you expect to find in coastal
    areas of western North and South America, around the Mediterranean Sea, western
    Australia, and the cape of South Africa?
    • ·        
    • shrubland
  140. 140. What kind of biome would you expect to find in eastern
    North America, Europe, and eastern Asia?
    • ·        
    • temperate deciduous forest

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