laboratory test results.txt

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golfdiva
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168167
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laboratory test results.txt
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2013-02-11 18:14:11
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laboratory lab test results normal values
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common tests and normal values
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  1. Arterial blood gasses, pH
    • pH 7.35 - 7.45
    • measures the pH of the body,
    • decr in diabetic ketoacidosis, respiratory acidosis
    • incr in respiratory alkalosis, incorrect ventilator settings, liver disease, sepsis, metabolic alkalosis, volume depletion
  2. O2 saturation
    • 95% - 100%
    • measures oxygen in arterial blood
    • decr in alcohol and COPD
    • incr O2 assistance (nasal cannula, O2 mask)
  3. Billirubin, total
    • total 0.3 - 1 mg/dl
    • billirubin is the waste product of the break down of hemoblobin, it is conjugated in the liver
    • incr in liver impairment (jaundice)
  4. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    • 7 - 20 mg/dl
    • byproduct of protein metabolism, excreted by kidneys, related to protein intake and kidney effectiveness
    • decr in liver failure, overhydration, starvation
    • incr in burns, gi bleeding, renal failure, dehydration, shock, stress
  5. cholestreol
    • 120 - 200 mg/dl
    • establishes membrane permeability, promotes atherosclerosis
    • decr in chronic illness, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, malabsorption, malnutrition, liver cancer, hyperthyroidism
    • incr in anorexia nervosa, Cushings, DM2 (uncontrolled),hyperlipdemia, hypothyroidism
  6. creatinine
    • 0.7 - 1.3 mg/dl
    • product of muscle breakdown, filtered by kidneys thus a marker for kidney function
    • decr in decreased muscle mass
    • incr in renal failure, hypthyroidism, urinary tract obstruction
  7. Fasting Glucose
    • 60 - 100 mg/dl
    • glucose is energy for cells, needs insulin to enter the cells
    • decr in adrenocortical insufficiency, hypopituitarism
    • incr in Cushing's, pancreatitis, DM
  8. hematocrit
    • 35% - 55%
    • percentange of blood volume taken up by red blood cells
    • decr in fluid excess, anemia
    • incr in burns, COPD, dehydration,
  9. platelet count
    • 150,000 - 450,000 cell/ul
    • clot formation
    • decr in alcohol, chemotherapy,
    • incr in blood loss, cancer, infection, iron deficiency,
  10. partial thromboplastin time (PTT) Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)
    • 20 - 40 seconds
    • measure how quickly the blood clots
    • decr in hypercoagulable state
    • incr in hemophilia, lups, anticoagulant therapy
  11. Prothrombin time (PT)
    • 10 - 13 seconds
    • measures how quickly the blood clots
    • incr in liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, anticoagulant therapy
  12. INR
    • 0.9 - 1.2
    • measurement of blood clotting time adjusted to compensate for differences in labs
    • incr in warfin therapy,
  13. Red blood cell count (RBC)
    • 4 - 6 million
    • measures the amount of oxygen carrying red blood cells
    • decr in alcohol abuse, anemia, liver disease, renal failure, hemorrhage,
    • incr in chronic hypoxia, tumors
  14. White blood cells, leukocyte
    • leukocyte 5000 - 10,000 cu mm count
    • WBC defend against disease
    • decr in anemia, sepsis
    • incr in cancer, infection
  15. Urine Protein
    • < 100 mg/100
    • kidneys normally excrete a small amount of protein
    • incr lupus, renal impairment, DM, preeclampsia, pyelonephritis,
  16. uric acid
    • 2- 8 mg/dL
    • final breakdown product eliminated by the kidneys
    • decreased in liver disease,
    • increased in eclampsia, renal failure, gout,
  17. iron
    • 26 - 200
    • bound to red blood cells, transports iron
    • decr in dietary iron deficiency
    • incr in anemia, lead poisoning, viral hepatitis
  18. ck - mb (creatine kinase-MB)
    • 0 - 3
    • incr. in cardiac trauma
    • less sensitive, may stay elevatied up to 4 days after event
  19. ck
    • 30 - 170
    • evaluation of chest pain, begins to incr 3-8 hours after MI, peaks at 24 hours
    • incr in cerebral/cardiac infarction, alcoholism, cerebral infaction, muscle trauma, tetanus
  20. troponin
    • < 0.04
    • specific marker for MI, levels over 0.04 indicate the amount of cardiac damage
    • incr in cardiac trauma, surgery
    • may stay elevated up to several days after the event
  21. magnesium
    • 1.8 - 3
    • helps with muscle contraction, DNA synthesis, and activation of ATP and B complex
    • decr in alcoholism, diabetic ketoacidosis, diarrhea,
    • incr. in Addison's, dehydration, renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism
  22. phosphorus
    • 2.4 - 4.1
    • Assists with activation of B complex, cell development, CHO, fat and protein metabolism, and formation and activation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate - creb cycle)
    • decr in alcoholism, diarrhea, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, refeeding syndrome, vomiting
    • incr in liver failure, renal failure, cirrhosis,
  23. cortisol
    • a.m.:  5 - 23
    • p.m.:  3 - 13
    • "stress hormone", increases blood sugar levels, supresses the immune system
    • decr in Addisons,
    • incr in acute illness, alcoholism, anxiety, depression, Cushings, chronic renal failure, septic shock, starvation, surgery, trauma
  24. Parathyroid Hormone, PTH
    • 10 - 55
    • regulates calcium and phospherous
    • decr in hypoparathyroid
    • incr in hyperparathyroid, malabsorption, renal failure, vitamin D deficiency
  25. ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
    • 44 - 147
    • removes phosphate from biliary tract, bone, liver
    • incr in liver cancer, bile duct obstruction,
  26. ALT (alanine transaminase)
    • 10 - 35
    • found mainly in the liver, involved in amino acid metabolism,
    • decr in vitamin B deficiency
    • incr.  liver impairment, acute viral hepatitis, cholangitis, choledocholithiasis,
  27. AST (aspartate transaminase)
    • < 35
    • found mainly in the liver, involved in amino acid metabolism,
    • decr in vitamin B deficiency
    • incr in liver impairment, choledocholithiasis, right heart failure,
  28. CD4 count
    • 400 - 1400
    • assists T cells in the immune system,
    • decr in HIV/AIDS,  (< 200) acute viral infection, Hodgikin's disease, immunodeficiency disorders, leukemias
    • incr. in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), infection mononucleosis
  29. erythrocyte sedimentation rate, (ESR)
    • female < 25
    • male < 17
    • the rate at which red blood cells precipitate in 1 hour, non-specific measure of inflammation
    • decr in CHF, sickle cell anemia
    • incr in chronic renal failure, anemia,
  30. Sodium
    • 136 - 145
    • Maintains acid/base balance, maintains extracellular volume, and maintains urine concentration.
    • decr in AIDS, adrenal insufficiency, CHF, cirrhosis, heavy sweating, SIADH, vomiting, water intoxication
    • incr in Cushings, dehydration, diabetes insipidus, DM, vomiting, excessive sweating
  31. Potassium
    • 3.5 - 5.0
    • Regulates protein synthesis, glycolysis, and glycogen synthesis.
    • decr in alkalosis, ascites, burns, Cushings, diarrhea, vomiting
    • incr in acidosis, Addisons, dehydration, infection, renal failure, severe tissue damage,
  32. Chloride
    • 98 - 106
    • Assists the formation of hydrocholric acid, maintenance of acid/base balance, and maintaining osmotic pressure.
    • decr in adrenal insufficiency, Cushings, diabetic ketoacidosis, gastric suctioning, SIADH, renal failure, vomiting
    • incr in diarrhea, dehydration, hyperparathyroidism, renal failure, respiratory acidosis
  33. albumin
    • 3.5 - 5.5
    • maintain osmostic pressure, transport other enzymes, hormones, drugs
    • decr in burns, chronic liver disease, DM, CHF, malnutrition, trauma
    • incr in dehydration, shock
  34. Calcium
    • 9.0 - 10.5
    • builds teeth/bones, signals nervers
    • decr in alcoholism,chronic renal failure, magnesium defieciency, vitamin D deficiency
    • incr in bone cancer, hyperparathyroidism, renal failure
  35. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
    • 1 - 2 ng/mL
    • produced by prostate
    • increased in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. 
    • Also increased in digital rectal exam, ejaculation and recent UTI.
  36. ICP (inter cranial pressure)
    • <20 mm Hg
    • measures the pressure inside the cranium
    • incr in increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure (i.e. brain injury, encephalitis, aneurysm, mennigitis, hematoma, etc.)
  37. creatinine clearance
    • 80 to139 mL/min/m2
    • best indication of overall kidney function

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