Principles Chapter 19

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Principles Chapter 19
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Principles Chapter 19
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  1. Describe the study of demography and define the basic demographic concepts.
    • Demography is a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.
    • Changes in populations occur as a result of three processes:
    • 1) fertility (births) is the actual level of childbearing for an individual or a population.
    • Fecundity is the number of women in workforce, and number of available partners)
    • 2) mortality (deaths) is the incidence of death in a population.
    • 3) migration is the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency.
  2. Define the concept of zero population growth.
    The point at which no population increase occurs from year to year.
  3. Trace the historical development of cities.
    • Three conditions must be present in order for a city to develop: (1) a favorable physical environment, (2) an advanced technology, and (3) a well-developed social organization.
    • First cities in middle eastern region of Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE.
    • Earliest cities not large by today�s standards. Populations between 5,000 and 10,000.
    • Preindustrial cities
    • Industrial cities
    • Postindustrial cities
  4. Identify the major characteristics of preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial cities.
    • *Preindustrial Cities - seeking protection and survival lived in walled cities. Competing warlords battled for power and territory during the "dark ages". Slowly trade increased, cities began to tear down walls.
    • Limited in size by a number of factors: (1)crowded housing conditions and lack of adequate sewage facilities increased the hazards from plagues and fires, and death rates were high, (2) food supplies were limited, and (3) migration to the city was difficult.
    • Had a sense of community. All different kinds of people lived there
    • *Industrial Cities
    • Factories sprang up rapidly as production shifted from the primary, agricultural sector to the secondary, manufacturing sector. With factories came new employment opportunities not available to people in rural areas.
    • Emergent technology, including new forms of transportation and agricultural production, made it easier for people to leave the countryside and move to the city.
    • 1700 to 1900
    • *Postindustrial cities
    • Since 1950s have emerged as their economies shifted from secondary production to tertiary production.
    • Increased rely on an economic structure that is based on scientific knowledge rather than industrial production, and as a result, a class of professionals and technicians grows in size and influence.
    • Dominated by �light� industry, such as software manufacturing; information-processing services, such as airline and hotel reservation services; educational complexes; medical centers; convention and entertainment centers; and retail trade centers and shopping malls.
    • Most families do not live close to a central business district.
    • Technological advances in communication and transportation make it possible for middle= and upper=income individuals and families to have more work options and live greater distances from the workplace; not available to people of color or those of lower end of the class structure.
  5. Explain the Malthusian perspective on population growth.
    Over two hundred years ago, Thomas Malthus warned that overpopulation would result in poverty, starvation, and other major problems that would limit the size of the population. According to Malthus, the population would increase geometrically while the food supply would increase only arithmetically, resulting in a critical food shortage and poverty.
  6. Discuss functionalist perspectives on urbanization and outline the major ecological models of urban growth.
    • Functionalists examine the interrelations among the parts that make up the whole; therefore, in studying the growth of cities, they emphasize the life cycle of urban growth.
    • Concentric Zone Model - Due to invasion, succession, and gentrification, cities are a series of circular zones, each characterized by a particular land use.
    • Sector Model - Cities consist of wedge-shaped sectors, based on terrain and transportation routes, with the most-expensive areas occupying the best terrain.
    • Multiple Nuclei Model - Cities have more than one center of development, based on specific needs and activities.
  7. Describe global patterns of urbanization in core, peripheral, and semiperipheral nations.
  8. Summarize the key assumptions of the major urban theorists
  9. Describe the neo Malthusian perspective on population growth.
    • Or "new Malthusians" have reemphasized the dangers of overpopulation. To neo-Malthusians, Earth is "a dying planet" with too many people and too little food, compounded by environmental degradation. Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems, ranging from global warming and rain-forest destruction to famine and vulnerability to epidemics. Unless significant changes are made, including improving the status of women, reducing racism and religious prejudice, reforming the agricultural system, and shrinking the growing gap between rich and poor, the consequences will be dire.
    • Have one or two children to bring about zero population growth
  10. Present the major ideas behind demographic transition theory.
    • Demographic Transition is the process by which some societies have moved from high birth rates and death rates to relatively low birth rates and death rates as a result of technological development.
    • Demographic transition theory links population growth to four stages of economic development: (1) the preindustrial stage, with high birth rates and death rates; (2) early industrialization, with relatively high birth rates and a decline in death rates; (3) advanced industrialization and urbanization, with low birth rates and death rates; and (4) postindustrialization, with additional decreases in the birth rate coupled with a stable death rate.
  11. Explain the symbolic interactionist perspective on urban life.
    Symbolic interactionist perspectives focus on how people experience urban life. Some analysis view the urban experience positively; others believe that urban dwellers become insensitive to events and to people around them.
  12. Discuss the Marxist perspective on population growth and compare it with the Malthusian perspective.
    • Over two hundred years ago, Thomas Malthus warned that overpopulation would result in poverty, starvation, and other major problems that would limit the size of the population. According to Malthus, the population would increase geometrically while the food supply would increase only arithmetically, resulting in a critical food shortage and poverty.
    • Marxist � the food supply is not threatened by overpopulation; technologically, it is possible to produce the food and other goods needed to meet the demands of a growing population. Viewed poverty as a consequence of the exploitation of workers by the owners of the means of production. From this perspective, overpopulation occurs because capitalists desire to have a surplus of workers (an industrial reserve army) so as to suppress wages and force workers concerned about losing their livelihoods to be more productive. Poverty not overpopulation is the most important issue with regard to food supply in a capitalist economy.
  13. Compare and contrast conflict and functionalist perspectives on urban growth.
    • Functionalists examine the interrelations among the parts that make up the whole; therefore, in studying the growth of cities, they emphasize the life cycle of urban growth.
    • According to political economy models/conflict perspectives, urban growth is influenced by capital investment decisions, class and class conflict, and government subsidy programs. At the global level, capitalism also influences the development of cities in core, peripheral, and semiperipheral natlions.
  14. Construct a comprehensive outlook on global migration using the new households� economics of migration approach, the neoclassical economic approach, network theory and institutional theory.
  15. Determine why demographic transition theory may not apply to population growth in all societies
  16. Discuss the major problems facing urban areas in the United States today.
  17. Demography
    A subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.
  18. Fertility
    The actual level of childbearing for an individual or a population.
  19. Crude Birth Rate
    The number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
  20. Mortality
    The incidence of death in a population.
  21. Crude Death Rate
    The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a given year.
  22. Migration
    The movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency.
  23. Population Composition
    The biological and social characteristics of a population, including age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household.
  24. Sex Ratio
    A term used by demographers to denote the number of males for every hundred females in a given population.
  25. Population Pyramid
    A graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age.
  26. Zero Population Growth
    The point at which no population increase occurs from year to year.
  27. Demographic Transition
    The process by which some societies have moved from high birth rates and death rates to relatively low birth rates and death rates as a result of technological development.
  28. Invasion
    The process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or land use.
  29. Succession
    The process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity.
  30. Gentrification
    The process by which members of the middle and upper-middle classes, especially whites, move into a central-city area and renovate existing properties.
  31. Organic Solidarity
    Characterized by interdependence based on the elaborate division of labor found in large, urban societies.
  32. Mechanical Solidarity
    characterized by a simple division of labor and shared religious beliefs, such as are found in small, agrarian societies.
  33. Gesellschaft
    societies exhibiting impersonal and specialized relationships. with the long-term commitment to the grou por consensus on values.
  34. Gemeinschaft
    A society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenderational stability, such that people have a commitment to the entire group and feel a sense of togetherness.

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