day one: BIOPSYCH

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efrain12
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168211
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day one: BIOPSYCH
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2012-08-30 21:14:40
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biopsych
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day one lectures PP
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  1. (nervous system divisiosns) 2 parts to nervous system
    1) Central nervous system

    2) Peripheral nervous system
  2. (2 parts to nervous system) Central nervous system
    located within the skull and spine
  3. (2 parts to nervous system) Peripheral nervous system
    located outside the skull and spine
  4. (2 parts to peripheral nervous system) 
    somatic and autonomic
  5. (PNS) Somatic nervous system
    -carries info about EXTERNAL environment to central nervous system

    • -sends info from CNS to "effectors" that can act on ext. environment
    • ex) swatting a fly
  6. (PNS) Autonomic nervous system
    -regulates the body's internal environment

    -ANS carries info from organs to glands to CNS

    • - ANS carries info from CNS to internal organs and glands like liver  or heart
    • ex) contricting or dilating blood vessells
  7. (ANS) 2 divisions Autonomic nervous system
    sympathetic and parasympathetic

    -both oppose one another
  8. (ANS) Sympathetic nervous system
    fight or flight
  9. (ANS) Parasympathetic nervous system
    rest and disgest

    ex) brings back the body to homestasis
  10. description of Somatic
    -effectors are skeletal muscles

    -pass along information from the senses
  11. description of Autonomic
    -effectors are glands and internal organs

    -pass along information from the body (how full the stomach is)
  12. Brain and spinal cord are the most...orgnas in the body
    protected
  13. CNS has 3 membranes that protect whcih are called...
    • 1. Dura mater
    • 2. arachnoid membrane
    • *vessel and fluid filled sub-arachnoid space
    • 3. Pia mater
  14. Physical protection fluid in CNS
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  15. description of cerebrospinal fluid
    -fills sub-arachnoid space

    • -fills spaces within the brain and spinal cord
    • *called ventricles in brain and central canal in spinal chord

    -all inter-connected

    • -produce by choroid plexus
    • *network of capillaires (small blood vesseles in ventricles)
  16. CNS has chemical protection description
    -endothelial cells form tight junctions to prevent chemical exchanges with the brain

    -INSIDE the brain, ASTROCYTES guard against harmful chemicals entering the brain.
  17. 3 parts of Neurons
    - Dendrites= branches

    - soma= cell body

    - axon= long tubes
  18. Purpose of neurons
    specialized to receive and pass electrical signals

    -release chemicals called neurotransmitters
  19. end of the neuron is called...
    buton
  20. space between buton and dendrite is called....
    synapse
  21. 4 types of neurons
    • 1) multipolar
    • 2) unipolar
    • 3) bipolar
    • 4) interneurons
  22. (4 types of neurons) Multipolar
    neuron with more than two processes extending from its cell body.
  23. (4 types of neurons) Unipolar neuron
    neuron with one process extending from its cell body
  24. (4 types of neurons) Bipolar neuron
    2 processes extending from its cell body
  25. (4 types of neurons) interneurons
    • their function is to integrate the neural activity within a single brain structure.
    •           *not to conduct signals from one structure to another
  26. Dendrites description
    -receive butons

    -space between buton and dendrite is called synapse
  27. Glia...
    -more numerous in the nervous system than neurons

    -variety of glial cells that perform many different functions
  28. 2 types of glia
    oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
  29. (types of glia) Oligodendrocytes
    -located in CNS

    - responsible for providing the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons
  30. (types of glia) Schwann cells
    -located in PNS


    -responsible for providing the myelin sheath around the axons of neurons
  31. gaps on the myelin sheath are called...
    nodes of ranvier

    -are important for electrical signaling of neurons.
  32. Gullian-barre syndrome
    • autoimmune disease that attacks the preipheral nervous system and myelin specifically
    • - result nerves do not work properly and results in paralysis
  33. Golgi stain
    impregnates nervous system tissue with silver nitrate

    *only impregnates a few neurons, but fully impregnates them revealing their entire structure
  34. Astrocytes
    -provide strutural support

    - can absorb toxins and other chemicals form the space between neurons

    • -processes cover outer surface of blood vessels and cell bodies
    • *regulates flow of chemicals between vessels and neurons
    • *form part of blood brain barrier

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