Anatomy Chapter 2

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Anatomy Chapter 2
2012-08-31 00:52:47

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  1. Atoms are the baic particles of ______
  2. What are the smallest units of matter?
  3. Protons and neutrons reside in the ____ of an atom
  4. What is Atomic Number?
    THe number of protons in an atom 
  5. Each ______ includes all the atoms that have the same number of protons and thus the same _____________
    • element
    • atomic number
  6. Within an atom, an ______________ surrounds the nucleus 
    electron cloud
  7. What is the mass number of an atom?
    the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
  8. What are Isotopes?
    atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain different numbers of neutrons
  9. Electrons occupy an orderly series of _________, commonly illustrated as ___________
    • energy levels
    • electron shells
  10. The _______ in the outermost energy level determine an element's chemical properties
  11. Atoms can combine through chemical reactions that create _________
    chemical bonds
  12. What is a molecule?
    Any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds
  13. What is a compound?
    a chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements
  14. What is an ion?
    atoms that have gained or lost electrons
  15. An __________ results from the attraction between ions
    ionic bond
  16. What are Cations?
    positively charged ions
  17. What are Anions?
    Negatively charged ions
  18. Atoms that share electrons to form a molecule are held together by ________
    covalent bonds
  19. A sharing of one pair of elections is a __________
    single covalent bond
  20. A bond with unequal sharing of electrons is a 
    polar covalent bond
  21. What is a hydrogen bond?
    a weak but important, force that can affect the shapes and properties of molecules
  22. What is the molecular weight of a molecule?
    the sum of the atomic weights of its component atoms
  23. THe rules of _________ are used to describe chemical compounds and reactions
    chemical notation
  24. Thre important chemical reactions in physiology
    • Decomposition reactions
    • Synthesis reactions
    • Exchange reactions
  25. A chemical reaction occurs when _____ are rearranged to form one or more _______
    • reactants 
    • products
  26. What is metabolism?
    THrough metabolism, cells capture, store, and use energy to maintain homeostasis and to perform essential functions
  27. What is work?
    The movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter
  28. Cells gain energy to power their functions by 
  29. WHat is Catobolism?
    thre breakdown of complex molecules
  30. What is Anabolism?
    The synthesis of new molecules 
  31. At equilibrium, the rates of two opposing reactions are
    in balance
  32. Enzymes catalyze specific biochemical reactions by
    lowering a reactions activation energy
  33. What is Activation Energy?
    the amount of energy required to start a reaction
  34. What is a catalyst?
    compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed
  35. Exergonic reactions...
    release energy
  36. Endergonic reactions.....
    absorb energy
  37. Inorganic compounds lack
  38. Organic compounds contain 
  39. What are nutrients?
    the essential elements and molecultes normally obtained from the diet
  40. What are metabolites?
    molecules that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies
  41. Nutriends and metabolites can be broadly categorized as either _______ or __________
    inorganic or organic compounds
  42. Physiologic systems depend on _____
  43. Electrolytes are ________ compounds
  44. Electrolytes undergo _______ in water to form ions
  45. Molecules that interact readily with water molecules are called
  46. Molecules that do not interact readily with water molecules are called
  47. The pH of a solution idicates the....
    concentration of hydrogen ions it contains
  48. An acid releases 
    hydrogen ions
  49. a base removes 
    hydrogen ions 
  50. What is the function of a buffer?
    to remove or replace hydrogen ions in solution
  51. Carbohydrates contain ______, ______, and ______ in a _________ ratio
    • carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    • 1:2:1 ratio
  52. Carbohydrates are most important as an ______ source for __________ processes
    • energy 
    • metebolic
  53. The three major types of carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides ( simple sugars)
    • disaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  54. Disaccharides and polysaccharides form from monosaccharides by
    dehydration synthesis
  55. Lipids contain a carbon to hydrogen ratio of 
  56. The five important classes of lipids are 
    • fatty acids
    • eicosanoids
    • glycerides
    • steriods
    • phospholipds
    • glycolipids
  57. Triglycerides consist of three ______________ attached by __________ to a molecule of glycerol.
    • fatty acid molecules
    • dehydration synthesis
  58. 3 facts about Steriods
    • 1. Are components of plasma membranes
    • 2. Include sex hormones and hormones regulation metabolic activities
    • 3. Are important in lipid digestion
  59. Structural lipids that are componenets of micelles and plasma membranes
    phospholipids and glcolipids
  60. Protiens are formed from ____________ and contain __________________________________
    • amino acids
    • carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  61. Seven important types of proteins are 
    • structural proteins
    • contractiles proteins
    • transport proteins
    • uffering proteins
    • enzymes
    • hormones
    • antibodies
  62. Proteins are chains of 
    amino acids
  63. What is a polypeptide?
    a linear sequence of amino acids held together by peptide bonds
  64. THe four levels of protein structure
    • primary structure ( amino adic sequence(
    • secondary structure ( amino acid interactions, such as hydrogen bonds)
    • Tertiary structure ( complex folding, disulfide bonds ,and interaction with water molecules( 
    • Quaternary structure ( formation of protein complexes from individual subunits
  65. Fibrous protiens are 
    enlongated, tough, durable, and generally insoluble
  66. Globular proteins are
    generally rounded and water soluble
  67. the reactants in an enzymatic reaction are called
  68. What are Cofactors?
    ions or molecules that must bind to the enzyme before substrate binding can occur
  69. What are Coenzymes
    orgainc cofactors commonly derived from vitamins
  70. THe shape of a protein determines its ____________
    functional characteristics
  71. DNA and RNA are 
    nucleic acids
  72. What are Nucleic acids? 
    they store and process info at the molecular level 
  73. DNA stands for
  74. RNA stands for
    ribonucleic acid
  75. What are nucleic acids?
  76. Each nucleotide contains a ____, a ______, and a __________
    • sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogenous base
  77. DNA contains the nitrogenous bases
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • thymine
  78. RNA cones the nitrogenous bases
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • uracil
  79. What is ATP?
    a high-energy compound used by cells
  80. THe most important high-energy compound is
  81. Cells make ATP by
    adding a phosphate group to ADP through phosphorylation
  82. Chemicals from functional units called
  83. What is Metabolic turnover
    the continuous removal and replacement of cellular organic molecules
  84. Metabolic turnover allows cells to 
    change and to adapt to changes in their environment