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Nasion (N)
The anterior most point of the fronto-nasal suture in the median plane
The junction of the nasal and frontal bones at the most posterior point on the curvature of the bridge of the nose
Porion (Po)
The midpoint of the upper contour of the external auditory canal (anatomic porion)
A point midway between the top of the image of the left and right ear-rods of the cephalostat (machine porion)
Orbitale (Or)
Lowermost point on the inferior margin of the orbit
A point midway between the lowest point on the inferior margin of the two orbits
Articulare (Ar)
A point midway between the two posterior borders of the left and right mandibular rami at the intersection with the basilar portion of the occipital bone
Pterygomaxillary Fissure (Ptm)
The point at the base of the fissure where the anterior and posterior wall meet
The contour of the pterygomaxillary fissure formed anteriorly by retromolar tuberosity of the maxilla and posteriorly by the anterior curve of pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone
Point A (A)
Deepest point of the anterior curvature of the premaxilla
An arbitrary measure point on the innermost curvature from the maxillary anterior nasal spine to the crest of the maxillary alveolar process
The most anterior point of the maxillary apical base
Point B (B)
Deepest point on the anterior curvature of the symphysis
An arbitrary measure on the anterior bony curvature of the mandible
The innermost curvature from chin to alveolar junction
Pogonion (Pog)
The most anterior point on the contour of the bony chin
Menton (Me)
Inferior most point on the bony chin
The lowest point on the mandibular symphysis
Sella (S)
The midpoint of the pituitary fossa
The center of the hypophyseal fossa (sella turcica)
Gnathion (Gn)
Most anterioinferior point on the curvature of the bony chin
Constructed point at intersection of mandibular plane and facial plane (Nasion to Pogonion)
The most outward and everted point on the profile curvature of the mandibular symphysis, located midway between pogonion and menton
Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS)
The most anterior point on the maxilla at the nasal base
Posterior Nasal Spine (PNS)
The tip of the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bone, at the junction of the soft and hard palate
Basion (Ba)
The anterior margin of the foramen magnum
The midpoint of the curvature between upper and lower surfaces of the basilar portion of the occipital bone
Gonion (Go)
Point on the curvature of the angle of the mandible
Constructed point at intersection of the mandibular plane along the lower border of the mandbile and the plane along the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible