PA Cephalometric Landmarks

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PA Cephalometric Landmarks
2012-08-31 02:30:24

PA Points and Definitions
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  1. Roof of Orbit (RO)
    uppermost point on the roof of the orbit
  2. Lateroorbitale (LO)
    Intersection point between the external orbital contour laterally and the oblique orbital line (projection of the greater wing of the sphenoid)
  3. Zygomaticofrontal Suture Point (Z)
    Intersection of external orbit and orbital portion of frontal bone
  4. Crista Galli (Cr)
    Neck of crista galli, most constricted point of the projection of the perpendicular lamina of the ethmoid
  5. Maxillare (Mx)
    Maximum concavity on the contour of the maxilla between malare and the maxillary first molar
  6. Zygoma (ZA, AZ)
    The lateral border on the center of the zygomatic arch
  7. Lateral Nasal (NC, CN)
    Points on the outline of the nasal cavity at the widest area
  8. Anterior Nasal Spine (ANS)
    Tip of the ANS just below the nasal concavity and above the hard palate
  9. Mastoidale (MS)
    Lowest point on the contour of the mastoid process
  10. Incisor Superius (IS)
    Lowest point on the incisal edge of the maxillary central incisor
  11. Menton (Me)
    Lowest point on the contour of the chin
  12. Antegonial Notch (AG, GA)
    Lateral inferior margin of the antegonial protruberances